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Veterinary Neuroanatomy - E-Book

Veterinary Neuroanatomy - E-Book

Christine E Thomson | Caroline Hahn



Veterinary Neuroanatomy: A Clinical Approach is written by veterinary neurologists for anyone with an interest in the functional, applied anatomy and clinical dysfunction of the nervous system in animals, especially when of veterinary significance. It offers a user-friendly approach, providing the principal elements that students and clinicians need to understand and interpret the results of the neurological examination. Clinical cases are used to illustrate key concepts throughout. The book begins with an overview of the anatomical arrangement of the nervous system, basic embryological development, microscopic anatomy and physiology. These introductory chapters are followed by an innovative, hierarchical approach to understanding the overall function of the nervous system. The applied anatomy of posture and movement, including the vestibular system and cerebellum, is comprehensively described and illustrated by examples of both function and dysfunction. The cranial nerves and elimination systems as well as behaviour, arousal and emotion are discussed. The final chapter addresses how to perform and interpret the neurological examination.

Veterinary Neuroanatomy: A Clinical Approach has been prepared by experienced educators with 35 years of combined teaching experience in neuroanatomy. Throughout the book great care is taken to explain key concepts in the most transparent and memorable way whilst minimising jargon. Detailed information for those readers with specific interests in clinical neuroanatomy is included in the text and appendix. As such, it is suitable for veterinary students, practitioners and also readers with a special interest in clinical neuroanatomy.

  • Contains nearly 200 clear, conceptual and anatomically precise drawings, photographs of clinical cases and gross anatomical specimens

  • Keeps to simple language and focuses on the key concepts
  • Unique ‘NeuroMaps’ outline the location of the functional systems within the nervous system and provide simple, visual aids to understanding and interpreting the results of the clinical neurological examination
  • The anatomical appendix provides 33 high-resolution gross images of the intact and sliced dog brain and detailed histological images of the sectioned sheep brainstem.
  • An extensive glossary explains more than 200 neuroanatomical structures and their function.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front cover cover
Veterinary Neuroanatomy i
Copyright page iv
Table of Contents v
Preface vii
Acknowledgements vii
Terminology, glossary and abbreviations ix
Glossary of terms and abbreviations ix
Anatomical terminology ix
1 Regional neuroanatomy 1
Basic systems arrangement of the nervous system 1
Introduction to regions 1
Peripheral nervous system 1
Spinal nerves 1
Cranial nerves 2
Autonomic nervous system 4
Central nervous system 4
Spinal cord 4
Brain – forebrain, brainstem, cerebellum 5
Brainstem 6
Cerebellum 7
Forebrain 7
Functional systems: introduction to the neurological examination 9
Neuroanatomy and lesion localisation 9
2 Neuroembryology 11
Development of the CNS 11
Formation of the neural tube 11
Development of the brain 12
Molecular basis of differentiation 13
Formation of the PNS 14
Malformations of the nervous system 14
3 Neurohistology, physiology and supporting structures 17
Neurohistology 17
Cells of the nervous system 17
Neurons 17
Neuroglia 18
Synapses 19
Neurophysiology 19
Membrane potential of excitable cells 20
Action potential 21
Myelination and nerve conduction 21
Synapses 21
Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters 21
The generalised neuron 22
Information processing within and between neurons 22
Supporting structures 23
Meninges 23
The ventricular system 23
Cerebrospinal fluid: production and circulation 23
Blood supply 24
Patterns of arterial supply to the brain 25
Blood supply and animal slaughter 25
Arterial supply to the spinal cord 25
Venous drainage of the CNS 25
Blood–brain barrier 29
4 Hierarchical organisation in the nervous system 31
Overview of motor and sensory systems 31
Overview of motor (output) systems 31
Upper motor neurons, lower motor neurons and the neuromuscular junction 31
Overview of sensory (input) systems 33
Worker and management systems 33
Motor systems 33
Sensory systems 33
The workers and maintenance crew: The reflex arc 34
Junior management: Spinal cord and brainstem 35
Overview of the spinal cord 35
Spinal cord grey matter 35
Spinal cord white matter 36
Spinal cord functions: Links with the PNS 37
Spinal cord functions: Links within the spinal cord 40
Spinal cord functions: Links to the brain 41
Senior management: Brainstem and motor cortex 42
UMNs and the brain 42
Sensory systems 44
Executive management: Forebrain 45
5 Reflexes and motor systems 47
General introduction 47
Spinal reflexes 48
Muscle spindles 48
The myotatic reflex 48
Golgi tendon organs and the inverse myotatic reflex 49
α-γ co-activation 49
Muscle tone 49
Posture and the myotatic reflex 50
Reflexes in different parts of the body 51
Somatic motor systems 51
General anatomy and function 51
UMN: Pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems 51
Tract decussation 52
Inhibition versus excitation 53
UMN tracts 53
Dysfunction of UMNs and LMNs 55
UMN versus LMN signs 55
Upper motor neuron signs 55
Lower motor neuron signs 55
Executive motor function 56
Basal nuclei and corpus striatum 57
6 Ascending somatic sensory tracts and conscious sensory systems 59
Receptors 59
General proprioception 59
Conscious proprioception 61
Subconscious proprioception 61
Conscious and subconscious proprioception in posture and gait 62
Nociception 63
Nociceptive input from neck, trunk, limbs and tail 64
The mechanisms of acupuncture 64
Nociceptive input from head 65
Nociceptive input from the viscera 66
7 The cerebellum 67
General anatomy 67
Cerebellar peduncles 67
Evolutionary and functional anatomy 68
Species differences 69
Cerebellar development in the neonatal animal 69
Histology of the cerebellum 70
Cerebellar function 71
Cerebellar connections 71
Summary of cerebellar connections 72
Role of cerebellum in posture, locomotion and movement: Setting the postural platform 72
Cerebellar dysfunction 72
8 Vestibular system 75
General concepts 75
Structural and functional anatomy 76
Static position, linear acceleration and deceleration of the head 77
Angular acceleration and deceleration of the head 77
Effect of stimulating the vestibular nuclei 77
Relationship between the vestibular apparatus and neck reflexes 80
Clinical dysfunction 80
Location of lesion and clinical signs 82
Paradoxical vestibular disease 82
Differentiating central versus peripheral vestibular disease 83
9 Posture and movement in quadrupeds 85
Motor function in quadrupeds compared to primates 85
Integration of neural functions for locomotion and movement 85
Basic stepping movements and control systems 85
Coordination of locomotion 86
Complex motor activity 86
Repetitive movements and central pattern generators 87
The final common pathway 87
Lesion location in the hierarchy and its clinical effect on locomotion 87
Orchestration of posture and movement 89
10 Cranial nerves 91
Functional classification of cranial nerve nuclei 91
Olfaction 93
Vision and CN II functions 95
General anatomy 95
The optic chiasm and decussation 95
Post-chiasmatic visual pathways 96
Eyeball position and movement 96
Oculomotor nucleus (CN III) 97
Trochlear nucleus (CN IV) 97
Abducent nucleus (CN VI) 97
Visual reflexes 97
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) 97
Masticatory muscle function 99
Sensory input from the head 99
Sensory nucleus of CN V 101
Facial expression 101
Audition 101
Auditory reflexes, and the brainstem auditory evoked response 103
Acoustic reflexes 103
Protective acoustic reflex 103
Olivocochlear reflex 103
Reflex head turning 104
Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) 104
Balance and the vestibular system 104
Taste and sensory input from the pharynx and viscera 104
Parasympathetic innervation of the eye, head and body cavities 105
Parasympathetic nucleus of the oculomotor nerve 105
Parasympathetic nucleus of the facial nerve 105
Parasympathetic nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve 105
Parasympathetic nucleus of the vagus nerve 105
Innervation of the pharynx, larynx and oesophagus 105
Tongue function 107
11 Behaviour, emotion and arousal 109
Behaviour and emotion 109
Arousal 109
12 The autonomic nervous system 113
Subdivisions of the visceral motor system 113
ANS: Central components and peripheral components 114
Two-neuron system in the periphery 114
Visceral afferent system 115
Visceral efferent system: Sympathetic/thoracolumbar division of the visceral efferent system 115
Supply to the head and thorax 116
Supply to the abdomen 116
Visceral efferent system: Parasympathetic system of the visceral efferent system 116
Supply to the head 117
Supply to the thorax and abdomen 117
Supply to the pelvic viscera 117
Autonomic innervation of the eye 117
Parasympathetic innervation of the eye 118
Dysfunction of the pupillary light reflex 118
Sympathetic innervation of the eye 118
Clinical signs of sympathetic dysfunction 118
Pupillary function in acute brain disease 118
Pharmacological testing of the pupils 118
Elimination systems 119
Autonomic innervation of the urinary bladder 120
Urinary bladder function 120
Dysfunction of innervation of the urinary bladder 121
Other sites of dysfunction 121
Defaecation 122
13 The neurological examination and lesion localisation 123
The neurological examination 124
Observation versus hands-on testing 124
Proprioception and motor function 125
Cranial nerve function 125
Hands-on testing 126
Proprioception and motor function 126
Hopping 126
Paw position response (knuckling) 127
Reflex stepping – the sliding paper test 127
Identifying asymmetry in proprioceptive function 127
Cranial nerves 127
Muscle bulk and tone 129
Spinal cord reflexes 129
Pelvic limb 129
Trunk 130
Thoracic limb 130
Nociception 130
Vertebral column and spinal cord hyperpathia 131
Assessing autonomic function 132
Functional road map of the nervous system 132
Anatomical basis of the neurological examination: key points (see specific chapters for details) 132
Proprioception (Chapters 4, 6, 7, 8) 132
Motor function (Chapters 4, 5, 7, 8, 9) 133
Behaviour and memory (Chapter 11) 133
Arousal (Chapter 11) 133
Cranial nerves (Chapter 10) 133
Nociception (Chapter 6) 133
For withdrawal reflex function 133
For conscious perception 133
Vertebral column/spinal cord hyperpathia 134
The NeuroMap: Overview of the nervous system 134
Summary of functions in the neuraxis 134
Signs of dysfunction in different regions of the neuraxis 135
Forebrain disease 135
Appendix 137
Glossary of anatomical structures in the Appendix images 157
Index 165
A 165
B 165
C 165
D 165
E 166
F 166
G 166
H 166
I 166
K 166
L 166
M 166
N 166
O 167
P 167
Q 167
R 167
S 167
T 168
U 168
V 168
W 168