This internationally authored volume presents major findings, concepts, and methods of behavioral neuroscience coordinated with their simulation via neural networks. A central theme is that biobehaviorally constrained simulations provide a rigorous means to explore the implications of relatively simple processes for the understanding of cognition (complex behavior). Neural networks are held to serve the same function for behavioral neuroscience as population genetics for evolutionary science. The volume is divided into six sections, each of which includes both experimental and simulation research: (1) neurodevelopment and genetic algorithms, (2) synaptic plasticity (LTP), (3) sensory/hippocampal systems, (4) motor systems, (5) plasticity in large neural systems (reinforcement learning), and (6) neural imaging and language. The volume also includes an integrated reference section and a comprehensive index.