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Nursing Key Topics Review: Mental Health - E-Book

Nursing Key Topics Review: Mental Health - E-Book

(2018)

Additional Information

Book Details

Abstract

There’s no better way to study for nursing exams and the NCLEX®! Nursing Key Topics Review: Mental Health provides a quick review of the psychiatric nursing information you need to know. More concise and less overwhelming than a textbook, this review simplifies essential concepts with bulleted lists, summary tables, and clear illustrations. So that you can check your understanding, review questions follow important topics and always include correct answers and rationales. Audio summaries on a mobile web app let you study while on the go!

  • Emphasis on critical, practical, and relevant information allows you to study mental health nursing efficiently and effectively.
  • NCLEX® exam-style review questions include answers and rationales, allowing you to assess your understanding and retention of the material.
  • Audio summaries on a mobile web app make it easy to review anytime, anywhere.
  • Quick-access format reflects what you want — the most essential content sprinkled with review questions.
  • Mnemonics help you to remember key information.
  • Bulleted points are easy to read or scan through, allowing for quick comprehension.
  • Tables and illustrations summarize and depict important concepts.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front Cover Cover
Front matter i
Nursing key topics reviewmental health i
Copyright ii
Reviewers iii
Preface iv
1 Psychiatric mental health nursing 1
Fundamental principles 1
Prevention 1
Promotion of mental health 1
Treatment 2
Rehabilitation 2
Standards of psychiatric nursing care 4
Nurse-client relationship 5
Overview 5
Therapeutic alliance 5
Nursing interventions 6
Phases of therapeutic relationship 7
Boundaries 8
Application and review 9
Clinical concepts and techniques 10
Overview 10
Considerations fundamental to a therapeutic relationship 11
Nursing process 12
Cultural and spiritual concepts 12
Cultural heritage 12
Culture and health 13
Cultural differences 13
Culturally competent care 13
Spiritual concepts 14
Spiritual assessment and diagnoses 14
Application and review 14
Answer key: Review questions 15
2 Therapeutic communication 20
Communication process 20
Overview 20
Factors that affect therapeutic communication 20
Cultural considerations 20
Social status 21
Gender 21
Age 21
Developmental level 22
Barriers to communication 22
Types of communication 22
Overview 22
Verbal communication 23
Nonverbal communication 24
Nurse’s role in therapeutic communication 25
Attributes of therapeutic communication 25
Support of therapeutic communication 26
Use of therapeutic techniques to facilitate communication 27
Avoidance of nontherapeutic communication 27
Application and review 27
Answer key: Review questions 30
3 Standards of practice and nursing process 34
Standards of practice in mental health nursing 34
Overview 34
Assessment 34
Nursing diagnosis 37
Outcome identification 38
Application and review 39
Planning 40
Implementation 41
Evaluation 42
Documentation 42
Application and review 43
Answer key: Review questions 44
4 Legal and ethical issues 46
Ethical dilemmas 46
Ethical principles 46
Terminology 46
Making ethical decisions 47
Overview 47
Steps in ethical decision making (table 4.1) 47
Ethical issues in psychiatric-mental health nursing 47
Legal considerations 48
Nurse practice acts 48
Sources of law 48
Application and review 48
Legal issues in psychiatric-mental health nursing 48
Overview 48
Rights of clients 49
The right to be treated with the least-restrictive environment 49
Hippa 49
Confidentiality and right to privacy 49
Restraint and seclusion 50
Right to consent to or refuse treatment 51
Informed consent 51
Duty to warn 52
Advance directives 52
Death with dignity: Legal, ethical, and emotional issues 52
Application and review 53
Americans with disability act 55
Commitment issues 55
Nurses’ rights and responsibilities 57
Nursing liability 58
Overview 58
Torts important to nurses 58
Crimes important to nurses 59
Application and review 59
Answers to review questions 61
5 Psychobiology 65
Major divisions of the nervous system 65
Central nervous system (cns) 65
Peripheral nervous system (pns) 65
Central nervous system 65
Overview 65
The brain 67
Brainstem 67
Cerebellum 68
Diencephalon 68
Cerebrum 68
Brain and spinal cord protection 69
Spinal cord 70
Spinal nerves 70
Brain cells 70
Neurotransmitters 71
Function 71
Types of neurotransmitters (there are at least 30 types) 72
Dopamine 72
Serotonin 72
Histamine 72
Acetylcholine (ach) 72
Norepinephrine 73
Glutamate (glutamic acid) and gaba 73
Genetics 73
Application and review 75
Concepts of psychobiology 76
Personality development 76
Formation of the personality 76
Adaptation to stress 79
Neurobiology 80
Biologic basis of mental health disorders 80
Application and review 81
Answer key: Review questions 82
6 Crisis theory and intervention 87
Characteristics of crises 87
Types of crises (table 6.2) 87
Situational crisis 87
Subjective crisis 87
Phase-of-life crisis 87
Disasters 88
Psychiatric emergencies 88
Human responses to crisis 89
Nurse’s role (see also nursing care of clients in crisis) 89
Risk factors for crises 89
Signs and symptoms of critical incident stress 89
Coping 89
Application and review 90
Nursing care of clients in crisis 91
Overview 91
Nursing assessment 92
Nursing diagnosis 92
Nursing interventions 93
Application and review 93
Suicide 94
Overview 94
Etiology 95
Epidemiology 96
Predisposing factors 96
Risk factors 97
Nursing assessment 99
Nursing diagnosis 100
Outcome identification and planning 100
Immediate nursing interventions 101
Ongoing nursing interventions 101
Evaluation and discharge criteria 103
Nursing self-care 103
Prognosis 103
Application and review 104
Answer key: Review questions 104
7 Mental health and mental illness 108
Mental health 108
Overview 108
Factors of mental health 108
Application and review 109
Mental illness 111
Definition and description 111
Dysfunctional patterns of behavior 112
Risk factors 113
Protective factors 113
Classification of mental health disorders 114
Overview 114
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5 (dsm-5) 114
Dsm format 114
Application and review 116
Answer key: Review questions 117
8 Psychotherapy 118
Nonpharmacologic therapeutic modalities 118
Overview 118
Cognitive theory 118
Behavioral theory 118
Maslow’s humanistic theory 119
Group therapy 119
Therapeutic milieu 119
Relaxation therapy 120
Family therapy 121
Additional nonpharmacologic therapies 121
Application and review 121
Psychopharmacology 122
Overview 122
Antianxiety/anxiolytic medications 123
Description 123
Types 124
Precautions 124
Nursing care of clients receiving antianxiety/anxiolytic medications 124
Antipsychotic agents 125
Types 126
Precautions 126
Nursing care of clients receiving antipsychotic agents 127
Application and review 128
Antidepressants 130
Description 130
Types 130
Precautions 130
Nursing care of clients receiving antidepressants 132
Antimanic and mood-stabilizing drugs 133
Description 133
Types 133
Precautions 133
Nursing care of clients receiving antimanic and mood-stabilizing agents 133
Sedative and hypnotic agents 134
Description 134
Types 134
Precautions 135
Nursing care of clients receiving sedative and hypnotic agents 135
Stimulants 136
Description and types 136
Precautions 136
Nursing care of clients receiving stimulants 136
Anti-alzheimer drugs 136
Description 136
Types 137
Precautions 137
Nursing care of clients receiving anti-alzheimer agents 137
Application and review 137
Answer key: Review questions 138
9 Neurocognitive Disorders 143
Overview 143
Nondementia cognitive disorders 143
Types of dementia 143
Classification of dementias as primary or secondary 143
General nursing care of clients with disorders related to alterations in cognition and perception 143
Application and review 144
Delirium 145
Definition 145
Etiologic and predisposing factors 145
Behavioral/clinical findings 145
Distinguishing delirium from dementia (table 9.1) 146
Therapeutic interventions 146
Nursing care of clients with delirium 146
Assessment/analysis 146
Planning/implementation 147
Evaluation/outcomes 147
Application and review 147
Alzheimer’s disease/dementia 147
Database 147
Nursing diagnosis 149
Nursing interventions and medications 149
Nursing care of clients with dementia 149
Assessment/analysis 149
Planning/implementation 150
10 Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 158
Schizophrenia 158
Overview 158
Predisposing factors 158
Manifestation of symptoms 159
Positive and negative symptoms 159
Course of illness 160
Clinical description (fig. 10.1) 161
Application and review 162
Therapeutic interventions 162
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorders 162
Assessment/analysis 162
Planning/implementation 163
Evaluation/outcomes 164
Application and review 165
Other schizophrenia spectrum disorders 167
Delusional disorders 167
Etiologic factors 167
Behavioral/clinical findings 167
Types of delusions 167
11 Mood and Adjustment Disorders 174
Mood disorders 174
Terminology 174
Epidemiology 174
Etiology 175
General nursing care of clients diagnosed with mood disorders 179
Depression 179
Application and review 181
Bipolar disorder 183
Depressive episode of a bipolar disorder 185
Assessment/analysis 185
Planning/implementation 185
Evaluation/outcomes 186
Manic episode of a bipolar disorder 186
Assessment/analysis (table 11.2) 187
Planning/implementation 187
Cyclothymic disorder 188
Prognosis 188
Adjustment disorders 189
Description 189
Predisposing factors 189
Epidemiology/theories 190
Behavioral/clinical findings 190
Therapeutic interventions 190
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with adjustment disorders 190
Assessment/analysis 190
Planning/implementation 190
Evaluation/outcomes 190
Application and review 191
Answer key: Review questions 192
12 Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders 197
Overview 197
Anxiety 197
Levels of anxiety 197
Behavioral defenses against anxiety (table 12.1) 197
Defense mechanisms 199
Epidemiology 200
Application and review 201
Anxiety 201
Etiology 201
Clinical manifestations 202
Nursing diagnosis 202
Outcome identification 202
Anxiety disorders 202
Generalized anxiety disorder 202
Panic disorder 204
Agoraphobia 205
Phobias 206
Application and review 207
Obsessive-compulsive disorder 208
Body dysmorphic disorder 209
Additional interventions 210
Pharmacologic interventions 210
Psychotherapy 210
Prognosis 210
Application and review 211
Answer key: Review questions 213
13 Personality Disorders 218
Overview 218
Etiologic theories 218
Biologic theories 218
Psychodynamic theory 219
Sociocultural considerations 219
Epidemiology and predisposing factors 219
Cluster a 219
Cluster b 220
Cluster c 220
Types of personality disorders 221
Unspecified personality disorders 221
Cluster a personality disorders 221
Paranoid personality disorder 221
Schizoid personality disorder 221
Schizotypal personality disorder 222
Cluster b personality disorders 222
Antisocial personality disorder 222
Borderline personality disorder 222
Histrionic personality disorder 223
Narcissistic personality disorder 223
Cluster c personality disorders 223
Avoidant personality disorder 223
Dependent personality disorder 223
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 223
Application and review 224
Therapeutic interventions 225
Overview 225
Individual therapy 225
Group therapy 225
Community mental health centers 225
Additional treatment modalities 225
Nursing interventions 227
Assessment/analysis (box 13.2) 227
Planning/implementation 228
Evaluation/outcomes 229
Prognosis 232
Application and review 233
Answer key: Review questions 235
14 Substance Use Disorders 240
Terminology 240
Etiology 240
Background 240
Biologic factors 241
Biochemical factors 241
Psychologic factors 241
Sociocultural factors 242
Individual factors 242
Environmental factors and access to psychotropic medications 243
Epidemiology 243
Alcohol use disorder 243
Alcohol use in the united states 243
Alcohol use disorder in the united states 244
Alcohol-related deaths 244
Tobacco and other drugs 244
Alcohol use disorder 245
Definition 245
Background 245
Physiologic effects of use 245
Therapeutic interventions 249
Nursing care of clients with aud 249
Assessment/analysis 249
Planning/implementation 251
Evaluation/outcomes 252
Application and review 252
Substance use disorders 254
Background 254
Behavioral/clinical findings 254
Types of drugs 254
Depressants 254
Stimulants 257
Hallucinogens 259
Therapeutic interventions 262
Nursing care of clients with substance use disorder 263
Assessment/analysis 263
Planning/implementation 263
Evaluation/outcomes 264
Prognosis 264
Application and review 264
Answer key: Review question 266
15 Somatic Symptom and Dissociative Disorders 271
Etiology 271
Biologic theory 271
Behavioral theory 271
Cognitive theory 271
Epidemiology 271
Somatic symptom and related disorders 272
Overview 272
General nursing care of clients diagnosed with somatic symptom and related disorders 272
Somatic symptom disorder 274
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder 275
Assessment/analysis 275
Planning/implementation 275
Evaluation/outcomes 275
Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) 275
Assessment/analysis 276
Planning/implementation 276
Evaluation/outcomes 276
Illness anxiety disorder 276
Application and review 277
Factitious disorder 278
Assessment/analysis 279
Planning/implementation 279
Evaluation/outcomes 279
Dissociative disorders 279
Dissociative identity disorder 280
Dissociative amnesia 281
Depersonalization/derealization disorder 281
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with dissociative disorders 281
Assessment/analysis 282
Planning/implementation 282
Evaluation/outcomes 283
Application and review 285
Answer key: Review questions 286
16 Anger, Aggression, Abuse, Assault, Violence 290
Terminology and background 290
Anger 290
Anger management and assertiveness training 290
Aggression 291
Bullying 291
Assault and battery 291
Violence 292
Abuse 292
Assault cycle 293
Application and review 293
Etiology/predisposing factors to violent behavior 293
Social learning/role modeling/operant conditioning risk factors 295
Biologic and biochemical factors 295
Environmental and socioeconomic factors 296
Intimate partner violence/sexual assault 296
Overview 296
Statutory rape 297
Date rape 298
Rape 298
Effects of rape on the victim 299
Trauma and the limbic system 299
Nursing care of survivors of sexual assault 300
Domestic/intimate partner violence 300
Courtship violence 300
Stalking 301
Family violence 301
Violence during pregnancy 302
Homicide of female victims 302
Nursing care of survivors in relation to domestic violence 302
Nursing care of situations of domestic violence/neglect 303
Assessment 303
Planning/implementation 304
Levels of prevention 305
Prognosis 305
Application and review 306
Abuse of children 306
Homicide of infants and small children 306
Nonfatal child abuse 306
Physical abuse 306
Nursing care of children who are physically abused 307
Assessment/analysis 307
Planning/implementation 307
Evaluation/outcomes 309
Psychological abuse of children 309
Sexual abuse of children 310
Nursing care of sexually abused children 312
Assessment 312
Planning/interventions 315
Evaluation/outcomes 316
Elder abuse 317
Background 317
Risk factors 317
Lack of reporting 318
Elder sexual abuse 318
Difficulties with recognizing elder trauma 318
Elder abuse offenders 319
Nursing care of abused elders 319
Assessment 319
Planning 320
Implementation 321
Nursing interventions 321
Evaluation 322
Assault of disabled persons 322
Application and review 322
Answer key: Review questions 323
17 Eating Disorders 326
Overview 326
Etiology (fig. 17.1) 326
Biologic factors 326
Sociocultural factors 326
Psychologic factors 326
Familial factors 326
Epidemiology 328
Comorbidities 328
Commanilities of anorexia nervosa and bulimia 328
General assessment 329
Nursing diagnosis 329
General nursing care of clients diagnosed with eating disorders 329
Planning 329
Client needs 329
Usual care 329
Additional care 330
Anorexia nervosa 330
Behavioral/clinical findings 330
Outcome identification 331
Therapeutic interventions 331
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa 332
Assessment/analysis 332
Planning/implementation 332
Evaluation/outcomes 332
Bulimia nervosa 332
Behavioral/clinical findings 332
Therapeutic interventions 333
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa 333
Assessment/analysis 333
Outcome identification 334
Implementation 334
Evaluation 334
Application and review 334
Answer key: Review questions 337
18 Sexual disorders 341
19 Trauma-Related and Stress-Related Disorders 360
Etiology 360
Epidemiology 360
Posttraumatic stress disorder 360
Overview 360
Behavioral/clinical findings 362
Therapeutic interventions 362
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder 363
Assessment/analysis 363
Planning/implementation 363
Evaluation/outcomes 363
Acute stress disorder 363
Overview 363
Therapeutic interventions and nursing care 364
Application and review 364
Adjustment disorders 364
Overview 364
Behavioral/clinical findings 366
Therapeutic interventions 366
Nursing care of clients diagnosed with adjustment disorders 366
Assessment/analysis 366
Planning/implementation 366
Evaluation/outcomes 367
Complicated grief 367
Overview 367
Normal grieving process 368
Behavioral/clinical findings 368
Types of complicated grief 368
Therapeutic interventions 369
Grieving process and nursing care 369
Treatment modalities for trauma-related and stress-related disorders 369
Individual and/or group therapy (see also chapter 8) 369
Psychopharmacology (see also chapter 8) 370
General nursing care of clients diagnosed with stress-related disorders 370
Outcomes identification 371
Nursing interventions 371
Discharge criteria 371
Application and review 371
Answer key: Review questions 373
20 Special populations 376
Children and adolescents 376
Neurodevelopmental disorders 376
Autism spectrum disorders 376
Evaluation/outcomes 379
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder 379
Evaluation/outcomes 383
Application and review 383
Oppositional defiant disorder 384
Intermittent explosive disorder 385
Conduct disorder 385
Separation anxiety disorder 386
Additional anxiety disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescence 387
Evaluation/outcomes 387
Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence 387
General nursing care related to disorders first evident in infancy, childhood, or adolescence 388
Assessment/analysis (box 20.1) 388
Planning/implementation 388
Application and review 390
Aging individuals 391
Theories of aging 391
Biologic theories of aging 391
Psychosocial theories 392
Normal aging process 393
Psychological aspect of aging 393
Sociocultural aspects of aging 395
Long-term care 395
Elder abuse 396
Suicide 396
Summary: Aging individuals 396
Assessment/analysis 397
Planning/implementation 397
Evaluation/outcomes 397
Assessment/analysis 398
Planning/implementation 398
Evaluation/outcomes 399
Serious and persistent mental illness 399
Populations at risk 399
Community mental health centers 399
Revolving-door syndrome 400
Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system 400
Psychiatric home care 401
Homelessness 401
Application and review 402
Answer key: Review questions 403
Bibliography 408
Index 411
A 411
B 414
C 415
D 418
E 419
F 420
G 420
H 421
I 421
J 422
K 422
L 422
M 422
N 423
O 426
P 426
R 428
S 429
T 432
U 433
V 433
W 433
Inside back cover 435