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Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials

Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials

Qiang Wang


Additional Information


Inorganic solid adsorbents/sorbents are attractive materials for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gases after fossil fuel combustion.

Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials introduces the key inorganic materials used as adsorbents/sorbents with specific emphasis on their design, synthesis, characterization, performance, and mechanism. Dedicated chapters cover carbon-based adsorbents, zeolite- and silica-based adsorbents, metal–organic framework (MOF)-based adsorbents, and alkali-metal-carbonate-based adsorbents. The final chapter discusses the practical application aspects of these adsorbents used in carbon dioxide capture from flue gases.

Edited and written by world-renowned scientists in each class of the specific material, this book will provide a comprehensive introduction for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers from both academic and industrial fields wishing to learn about the topic.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials i
Preface v
Contents vii
Chapter 1 - Carbon-based CO2 Adsorbents 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Porous Carbons 3
1.2.1 Chemical Activation 3 KOH as an Activating Agent 3 Other Chemicals as Activating Agents 11
1.2.2 Physical Activation 13 CO2 as an Activating Agent 13 Steam as an Activating Agent 14
1.2.3 Metal Ion Activation 15
1.2.4 Templating Method 22 Porous Silica as a Hard Template 25 Zeolite as a Hard Template 26 Porous Organic Frameworks as Self-templates 27 Carbide Lattices as Self-templates 30 Triblock Copolymer as a Soft Template 32
1.2.5 Combined Method of Templating and Activation 34 Two-step Process 34 One-step Process 36
1.3 Graphene-based Porous Materials 38
1.3.1 Graphene-based Adsorbents by Chemical Activation 38
1.3.2 Graphene-based Adsorbents by Physical Activation 39
1.3.3 Graphene-based Adsorbents by Other Techniques 40
1.4 Carbon Nanotubes 41
1.5 Carbon-based Hybrid Adsorbents 44
1.5.1 Carbon–Organic Hybrid Adsorbents 44
1.5.2 Carbon–Inorganic Hybrid Adsorbents 46
1.6 Effect of Carbon Structure on CO2 Adsorption 47
1.6.1 Pore Size Effect 47 Analysis of Porosity 47 Micropore Filling Mechanism of CO2 Adsorption 49 Pore Size Effect at Different Sorption Pressures 51 Pore Size Effect at Different Adsorption Temperatures 52
1.6.2 Surface Chemistry Effect on CO2 Adsorption 53 Effect of Nitrogen Doping 55 Effect of Other Heteroatom-doping 61
1.7 Summary and Outlook 64
Acknowledgements 65
References 65
Chapter 2 - Zeolite and Silica-based CO2 Adsorbents 76
2.1 Introduction 76
2.2 (Alkali) Silicates 79
2.2.1 Silicate Amine-based Adsorbents 79 CO2 Absorption in Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions 79
2.2.2 Synthesis of Amine–Silica Adsorbents 82 Impregnation Method 82 Post-synthesis Grafting 83 Direct Condensation 84
2.2.3 CO2 Capture by Amine–Silica-based Adsorbents 84 Amine Impregnated on Silica 84\rEffect of Temperature.As demonstrated by Xu et al.,48,54 a decrease in temperature from 75 °C to 25 °C causes a dramatic decreas... 84\rEffect of CO2 Partial Pressure.CO2 adsorption capacity is also influenced by the partial pressure of CO2 in the gas feed. Regard... 87\rEffect of Water.Xu et al. also studied the influence of water on CO2 adsorption capacity using PEI (50 wt%)/MCM-41. The authors ... 87\rEffect of Percentage of Impregnation.According to the work of Xu et al.,48 the amount of amine (PEI) deposited on MCM-41 mesopor... 87\rEffect of the Support Structure.There is also a correlation between the CO2 adsorption capacities of amines impregnated on diffe... 87\rEffect of the Mesopores Structuring Agent.CO2 capture was tested with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) impregnated on MCM-41 and SB... 88 Amine Grafted on Silica 88\rEffect of CO2 Partial Pressure.In the case of APTES (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-type aminosilanes for grafting on MCM-48-type... 88\rEffect of Water.Similar to the results obtained in the case of amines impregnated on silica, the presence of water during CO2 ad... 91\rEffect of the Support.As shown in Table 2.5, the important influence of the support on CO2 adsorption capacities can also be dem... 91\rEffect of Organosilane Type.Hiyoshi et al.74 have shown that the nature of the aminosilanes used in the synthesis of amine-graft... 92
2.3 Alkali Silicate-based Sorbents 92
2.3.1 Calcium Silicate (CaSiO3) 92
2.3.2 Sodium Metasilicate (Na2SiO3) 93
2.3.3 Lithium Orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) and Other Lithium Silicates 94 Li4SiO4 94\rInfluence of the Operating Conditions.Theoretically, Li4SiO4 can adsorb up to 0.367 g of CO2 per gram of Li4SiO4 (∼8.34 mmol CO2... 95\rImprovement of the Absorption Performance of Li4SiO4.The improvement of the CO2 adsorption performance of Li4SiO4 requires modif... 95 Other Lithium Silicates 98
2.4 Clays-based Adsorbents 99
2.4.1 Phyllosilicates 99
2.4.2 Clays for CO2 Capture 99 Smectite 100 Montmorillonite 103 Bentonite 104 Saponite 105 Hectorite 106 Laponite 107 Sepiolite 107
2.5 Mineral Silicates for Carbonation 108
2.5.1 Mineral Carbonation 108
2.5.2 Silicates as Natural Minerals for Carbonation 109
2.5.3 Mineral Pre-treatments 110
2.5.4 Thermodynamics of Mineral Carbonation 110
2.5.5 Processes for Mineral Carbonation 111 Mineral Carbonation Ex Situ 112\rMineral Carbonation ‘Ex-Situ’: Aqueous Carbonation.Mineral carbonation in an aqueous medium occurs according to three important ... 112\rMineral Carbonation ‘Ex-Situ’: Gas–Solid Route.The gas–solid method is the easiest approach towards mineral carbonation. The mag... 112 Mineral Carbonation In Situ 114 Other Mineral Carbonation Routes 115
2.6 Zeolites and Related Materials 115
2.6.1 Foreword 115
2.6.2 Peculiarities of Zeolites 116
2.6.3 CO2 Sorption in Zeolites: Main Issues 117 Preamble 117 Key Parameters and Mechanistic Considerations 119 Zeolite Acid–Base Properties: How Do They Impact the Sorption Features 126 CO2 Sorption in Alkali-exchanged Zeolites: the ‘Li’ Paradox 128
2.6.4 Miscellaneous Parameters 129 Impact of the Presence of Water 129 Impact of Sorbent Particle Size and Morphology 130 Selectivity 131 Possibility of Dual-site Adsorption 131
2.6.5 Zeolite-like Materials as Precursors to Design Performant Li-silicate Sorbents: How to Bridge the Gap Between High Affinity... 132
2.7 Outline: Towards an Efficient Chemical Transformation of CO2 into Fuels 133
2.7.1 Potential Chemical Valorization of Carbon Dioxide 134
2.7.2 Synthesis of Energy Carriers 134
2.7.3 Future Prospects 136
2.8 Conclusion 138
Acknowledgements 139
References 139
Chapter 3 - Metal–Organic Framework (MOF)-based CO2 Adsorbents 153
3.1 Introduction 153
3.2 CO2 Adsorption by MOFs With Open Metal Sites 155
3.3 CO2 Adsorption by Amine-functionalized MOFs 158
3.3.1 In situ Synthesized Amine-functionalized MOFs 160 Amine-functionalized MOFs With a Structural Motif 160 Amine-functionalized MOFs Without a Structural Motif 164
3.3.2 Post-synthesis Amine-functionalized MOFs 165 Post-synthesis Functionalization of MOFs via Covalent Bonding 166 Post-synthetic Functionalization of MOFs via Coordination Bonding 167
3.3.3 Physical Incorporation of Amines into Unmodified MOFs 170
3.4 CO2 Adsorption by Mixed-ligand-based MOFs 171
3.4.1 Pillared-layer Mixed-ligand MOFs (PL-MOFs) 171
3.4.2 Cluster-based Mixed-ligand MOFs 173
3.5 CO2 Adsorption by Flexible Ligand-based MOFs (FL-MOFs) 174
3.5.1 Increasing the Free Pore Volume in FL-MOFs 175
3.5.2 Maintaining Porosity in FL-MOFs After the Removal of the Solvent 177
3.5.3 Increasing the Gas Binding Affinity in FL-MOFs 178
3.6 CO2 Adsorption by MOFs with Interpenetration 179
3.7 CO2 Adsorption by Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) 180
3.8 CO2 Adsorption by Composite MOFs 183
3.8.1 MOF–Carbon Composites 183
3.8.2 Composites of MOFs with Other Support Materials 187
3.9 CO2 Adsorption by MOFs under Humid Conditions 189
3.10 Conclusion and Perspectives 193
Acknowledgements 194
References 194
Chapter 4 - Alkali-metal-carbonate-based CO2 Adsorbents 206
4.1 Introduction 206
4.1.1 Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) 207
4.1.2 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) 208
4.2 CO2 Capture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 Under Moist Conditions 209
4.2.1 CO2 Capture of Na2CO3 Under Moist Conditions 209 Experimental 210\rSample Preparation.Analytical reagent grade sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was used during experiments of decomposition of NaHCO3 a... 210\rBicarbonate Formation Measurements.The obtained samples were processed with the TG-DTA apparatus using a gas composition of CO2 ... 210\rCrystal Structure and Morphology Measurements.The crystal structures of the products after CO2 occlusion reactions with 10, 20, ... 211 Results and Discussion 211\rCO2 Capture of Na2CO3 at Different Temperatures.The decomposition of NaHCO3 occurred with TG-DTA under pure N2 gas via the rever... 211\rCO2 Capture of Na2CO3 Under Various CO2 Concentrations.The dependence of the sorptivity of Na2CO3 on CO2 concentration was shown... 214\rCO2 Capture of Na2CO3 Under Various H2O Concentrations.As mentioned in Section, the bicarbonate formation of Na2CO3 pr... 222 Conclusions 227
4.2.2 Capture of CO2 of K2CO3 Under Moist Conditions 227 Experimental 229\rSample Preparation.KHCO3 (99.5% chemical purity) was used during the experiments of decomposition of KHCO3 and bicarbonate forma... 229\rBicarbonate Formation Measurements.K2CO3 bicarbonate formation was measured with the TG-DTA apparatus, as shown in Section 4.2.1... 229\rCrystal Structure and Morphology Measurements.The crystal structures of the products after reaction times of 1, 5, 20, 40, 60, a... 229 Results and Discussion 229\rBicarbonate Formation of K2CO3.KHCO3 decomposed to K2CO3, CO2, and H2O as per the reverse of reaction (4.15). This was confirmed... 229\rExothermic Properties and Temperature Variation.Since the process of bicarbonate formation of K2CO3 leads to a temperature eleva... 234\rStructural Changes in the CO2 Sorption of K2CO3.The bicarbonate formation of K2CO3 was examined by measuring the XRD patterns of... 236\rSample Morphologies with Reaction Time.The morphological variation of K2CO3 was examined via SEM observations before and after C... 238\rCO2 Capture of K2CO3 Under Various H2O Concentrations.As mentioned in the CO2 capture of K2CO3 under different CO2 concentration... 243\rCO2 Capture of K4H2(CO3)3·1.5H2O Under Different H2O or CO2 Concentrations.The CO2 occlusion of K4H2(CO3)3·1.5H2O displayed a sl... 250 Conclusions 253
4.2.3 Improvements of the CO2 Sorptivity of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 254 Improvement of the CO2 Sorptivity of Na2CO3 254 Improvement of the CO2 Sorptivity of K2CO3 255
4.3 Attempts of Practical Use 256
Acknowledgements 256
References 256
Chapter 5 - Application Status of Post-combustion CO2 Capture 259
5.1 Introduction 259
5.1.1 GHG Emission 259
5.1.2 Pre-combustion Carbon Capture 260
5.1.3 Post-combustion Carbon Capture 261
5.1.4 Oxy-firing 263
5.1.5 Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) 264
5.1.6 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) 264
5.1.7 Natural Gas Combustion 265
5.2 Current Status of CCS Projects 267
5.2.1 Large-scale Projects 268 SaskPower Boundary Dam- CCS 268 Petra Nova Carbon Capture, Texas, USA 269 Kemper County Energy Facility (IGCC + CCS) 271 Callide – Oxy-fuel Combustion and Carbon Storage Demonstration Plant 272 NET Power Clean Energy Large-scale Pilot Plant 273
5.2.2 Small-scale Projects 273 Fluor Econamine FG PlusSM 273 MHI KM-CDR Process 275 Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (ACAP) 275 Powerspan ECO2™ Process 277 Cansolv 278 Aker Clean Carbon 279 Alstom Advanced Amine Process 281 Siemens POSTCAP Amino Acid Salt 281
5.3 Environmental and Economic Concerns 283
5.4 Conclusion 285
References 286
Subject Index 290