Menu Expand
Microalgal Hydrogen Production

Microalgal Hydrogen Production

Michael Seibert | Giuseppe Torzillo


Additional Information


Hydrogen could be the fuel of the future. Some microorganisms can produce hydrogen upon illumination. Biological methods of production could be greener than chemical or physical production methods, but the potential of biological methods is still being harnessed.
This comprehensive book highlights the key steps necessary for future exploitation of solar-light-driven hydrogen production by microalgae. The highly regarded editors bring together 46 contributors from key institutions in order to suggest and examine the most significant issues that must be resolved to achieve the goal of practical implementation, while proposing reliable methodologies and approaches to solve such issues. This 19 chapter book will be an indispensable resource for academics, undergraduate and graduate students, postgraduates and postdoctoral scholars, energy scientists, bio/chemical engineers, and policy makers working across the field of biohydrogen and bioenergy.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Microalgal Hydrogen Production: Achievements and Perspectives v
Copyright vi
Foreword vii
References xi
Preface xiii
Contents xvii
Part I - Biology and Physiology of Photobiological Hydrogen Production 1
Chapter 1 - Photosynthesis and Hydrogen from Photosynthetic Microorganisms 3
1.1. Introduction 5
1.2.\rDeveloping a Low Carbon Economy 6
1.2.1.\rPast and Future Carbon Emissions in Perspective 8
1.2.2.\rThe Case for Hydrogen 9
1.3.\rPhotosynthesis 11
1.3.1.\rRelevant Concepts and Limiting Factors 12
1.3.2.\rPhotosynthesis and Biofuels 15
1.4.\rBiological Hydrogen Production 16
1.4.1.\rBasic Concepts and Processes 16
1.4.2.\rPhotosynthetic Hydrogen Production—Photosynthetic Bacteria 19
1.4.3.\rPhotosynthetic Hydrogen Production—Cyanobacteria 20
1.4.4.\rPhotosynthetic Hydrogen Production—Green Algae 23
1.5.\rFuture Prospects 26
Acknowledgements 26
References 26
Chapter 2 - Structure-function of [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-Hydrogenases: an Overview of Diversity, Mechanism, Maturation, and Bifurcation 31
2.1.\rIntroduction to Hydrogenases 33
2.2.\r[NiFe]-hydrogenase Structure 34
2.3.\r[FeFe]-hydrogenase Structure 35
2.4.\rTaxonomic and Functional Diversity of H2ases 37
2.4.1.\r[NiFe]-H2ase Diversity 37
2.4.2.\r[FeFe]-H2ase Diversity 39
2.5.\r[NiFe]- and [FeFe]-H2ase Mechanisms 43
2.6.\rH2ase Maturation 47
2.6.1.\r[NiFe]-H2ase Maturation 47
2.6.2.\r[FeFe]-H2ase Maturation 49
2.7.\rBifurcating H2ases 52
2.8.\rFuture Directions 55
Acknowledgements 56
References 56
Chapter 3 - Theory Related to [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Stereoelectronic Properties, H-cluster Oxidation, and Mechanisms for Increasing Oxygen Tolerance 67
3.1.\rIntroduction 69
3.2.\rCrystallographic, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Characterization of Relevant States in [FeFe]-hydrogenases 70
3.3.\rThe Catalytic Mechanism of [FeFe]-hydrogenases 78
3.4.\rInactivation (by O2) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases 80
3.5.\rCrystallographic, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Characterization of Relevant States in [NiFe]-hydrogenases 84
3.6.\rThe Catalytic Mechanism of [NiFe]-hydrogenases 88
3.7.\rAerobic and Anaerobic Inactivation and Reactivation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases 90
3.7.1.\rO2-sensitive [NiFe]-hydrogenases, Oxidation to the Ni–B and Ni–A States 91
3.7.2.\rO2-resistant Enzymes and the Role of Selenium 94
3.7.3.\rThe Unique [4Fe–3S] Cluster in the O2-tolerant Enzymes 95
3.8.\rSimilarities and Differences Between [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases 98
3.9.\rConcluding Remarks 100
References 100
Chapter 4 - The Physiology of the Bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase in Cyanobacteria and the Role of Hydrogen Throughout the Evolution of Life 107
4.1.\rThe Physiological Role of Hydrogen Throughout the Evolution of Life and in Contemporary Organisms 109
4.2.\rThe Distribution of Hydrogen and Hydrogenases in the Environment 113
4.3.\rBiochemical Properties of Cyanobacterial Bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenases 116
4.4.\rPhysiological Functions of Cyanobacterial Bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenases 122
4.4.1.\rPhotohydrogen Production 122
4.4.2.\rFermentative Hydrogen Production 126
4.4.3.\rPhysiological Significance of Cyanobacterial Bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenases in the Environment of Microbial Mats and Surf... 127
4.5.\rFuture Approaches Towards Enhanced Cyanobacterial Hydrogen Production Based on Current Knowledge 129
Methods 132
Acknowledgements 133
References 133
Chapter 5 - Assessment of Electrochemically-based Strategies to Protect [FeFe]-hydrogenases from Oxygen 139
5.1.\rIntroduction and Background 141
5.2.\rElectrocatalytic Properties of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HydA1 and a Blue Cu Oxidase 146
5.2.1.\rHydrogen Evolution and Oxidation by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HydA1 146
5.2.2.\rOxygen Reduction by Bilirubin Oxidase 147
5.3.\rAssessment of a Localized Blue Cu Oxidase as a ‘Bodyguard’ for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HydA1 148
5.3.1.\rElectrocatalysis of H2 Cycling by HydA1 in the Presence of O2 and Effect of a Co-adsorbed Oxidase 148
5.3.2.\rInterpretation and Implications 150
Acknowledgements 151
References 151
Chapter 6 - Sustaining Hydrogen Production in Eukaryotic Microalgae Through Genetic Approaches 155
6.1.\rIntroduction 157
6.2.\rIdentification of New Hydrogen Producers by Genetic Engineering and Systematic Screening 158
6.2.1.\rIdentification of High H2 Producers by Systematic Screening of Libraries Created by Forward Genetics 158
6.2.2.\rConstruction of High Hydrogen Producers by Reverse Genetics 161
6.3.\rSystems Biology for the Identification of Gene Targets Involved in Hydrogen Production in Microalgae 162
6.4.\rFuture Strategies, Prospects, and Conclusions 162
Acknowledgements 163
References 163
Chapter 7 - Metabolism and Genetics of Algal Hydrogen Production 167
7.1.\rIntroduction 169
7.2.\rHydrogen Production in Algae 171
7.3.\rHydrogen Utilization in Algae 173
7.4.\rAlgal Anaerobic Metabolism and Metabolic Pathways 174
7.5.\rAlgal Hydrogenase Isoforms 178
7.6.\rAlgal Hydrogenase Diversity 179
7.7.\rHydrogenases in Saltwater Algae 181
7.8.\rFuture Directions 182
Acknowledgements 183
References 183
Chapter 8 - Photosynthetic Electron Transfer Pathways During Hydrogen Photoproduction in Green Algae: Mechanisms and Limitations 189
8.1.\rIntroduction 191
8.2.\rElectron Pathways Involved in Hydrogen Photoproduction 192
8.2.1.\rDirect Biophotolysis 193
8.2.2.\rIndirect Biophotolysis 193
8.2.3.\rEffect of Nutrient Deprivation and Role of Starch Reserves 195
8.3.\rLimitation of Hydrogen Photoproduction Related to the Electron Supply 196
8.3.1.\rCompetition with the Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle 197
8.3.2.\rDown-regulation by the Proton Gradient and Contribution of Cyclic Electron Flow 198
8.3.3.\rNon-photochemical Reduction of the Plastoquinone Pool 199
8.4.\rOxygen Concentration in the Vicinity of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase 199
8.4.1.\rRole of Mitochondrial Respiration 200
8.4.2.\rRole of Plastidial O2 Uptake Processes 201
8.4.3.\rEffect of the PSII:PSI Ratio 203
8.5.\rPhysiological Function of Hydrogen Photoproduction 204
8.6.\rFuture Directions 206
Acknowledgements 207
References 207
Chapter 9 - The Role of Chlamydomonas Ferredoxins in Hydrogen Production and Other Related Metabolic Functions 213
9.1.\rIntroduction and Background 215
9.2.\rFerredoxin 1 (FDX1 or PETF) 223
9.3.\rFerredoxin 2 (FDX2) 225
9.4.\rFerredoxin 5 (FDX5) 228
9.5.\rConclusions and Future Directions 229
Acknowledgements 230
References 230
Chapter 10 - The Metabolic Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Depletion of Essential Nutrients: Application for Hydrogen Production 235
10.1.\rIntroduction 237
10.2.\rChlamydomonas as a Model System to Study Metabolic Flexibility in Response to Abiotic Stresses 238
10.3.\rDeprivation-induced Remodeling of Algal Metabolism 242
10.3.1.\rNitrogen Depletion 242
10.3.2.\rSulfur and Phosphorus Deficiencies 246
10.4.\rAnaerobic Metabolism and Hydrogen Evolution in C. reinhardtii 248
10.5.\rComparison of Acclimation Patterns and Hydrogen Photoproduction in S, N, P, or Mg-deprived Cultures 251
Conclusions 257
Acknowledgements 258
References 258
Chapter 11 - Environmental Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 265
11.1.\rIntroduction 267
11.2.\rHydrogen from Microalgae 268
11.3.\rHydrogen from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 268
11.4.\rRole of Environmental Factors in Photobiological Hydrogen Production 282
11.4.1.\rLight 283
11.4.2.\rTemperature 284
11.4.3.\rpH 284
11.4.4.\rFluid Dynamics 285
11.5.\rConclusions and Future Developments 286
References 293
Chapter 12 - In vitro Light-driven Hydrogen Production 299
12.1.\rIntroduction 301
12.2.\rDesign Principles to Control Electron Transfer in Hydrogenase 303
12.3.\rHydrogenase as a H2-production Catalyst Coupled Directly to Photosynthetic Reaction Centers 305
12.3.1.\rStrategies and Principles for Direct Coupling of Biological Light-harvesting to Hydrogenase-catalyzed H2 Production 307
12.3.2.\rHydrogenases Coupled to PSI 307
12.3.3.\rHydrogenases Coupled to Water Splitting by PSII 308
12.4.\rHydrogen Production by Hydrogenases in Artificial Photosynthesis Systems 309
12.4.1.\rMechanistic Principles of Molecular Assembly and Electron Transfer in Hydrogenase-based, Model Systems 311
12.4.2.\rPEC Hydrogenase Systems 314
12.4.3.\rSelf-assembled, Photocatalytic Complexes Composed of Hydrogenases and Nanostructured, Light-harvesting Materials 315
12.5.\rFuture Prospects 317
Acknowledgements 318
References 318
Part II - Biotechnology of Hydrogen Production 323
Chapter 13 - Hydrogen Production Using Novel Photosynthetic Cell Factories. Cyanobacterial Hydrogen Production: Design of Efficient Organisms 325
13.1.\rIntroduction 327
13.2.\rCyanobacterial Hydrogenases, the Native System 327
13.3.\rDesign of Improved Cyanobacteria for Enhanced Hydrogen Production 328
13.3.1.\rDeletion of the Capacity to Take up Hydrogen 329
13.3.2.\rDesign of More Efficient Catalysts for Hydrogen Production 329
13.3.3.\rIncrease Photosynthetic Efficiencies for Efficient Hydrogen Production 330
13.3.4.\rLimit Competing Pathways for Increased Hydrogen Production 331
13.4.\rFuture Directions—Efficient Photosynthetic Cell Factories for Hydrogen Production 332
Acknowledgements 332
References 332
Chapter 14 - Improving Photosynthetic Solar Energy Conversion Efficiency: the Truncated Light-harvesting Antenna (TLA) Concept 335
14.1.\rIntroduction 337
14.1.1.\rGreen Microalgal Chlorophyll-protein Light-harvesting Antenna Complexes 337
14.1.2.\rCyanobacterial Bilin-protein Light-harvesting Antenna Complexes 339
14.2.\rCompetition for Light-harvesting Among Photosynthetic Organisms 340
14.2.1.\rSize of the Light-harvesting Antenna 340
14.2.2.\rSunlight-to-biomass Energy Conversion Efficiency in Photosynthesis 341
14.2.3.\rThe Principle of Light-harvesting Antenna Engineering for Mass Cultures 342
14.3.\rMinimizing the Chlorophyll Antennae to Maximize Photosynthetic Efficiency and Productivity 344
14.3.1.\rImport, Transit, and Assembly of the Light-harvesting Proteins in Developing Thylakoids 344
14.4.\rConclusions 347
14.5.\rFuture Directions 348
Acknowledgements 349
References 350
Chapter 15 - Immobilization of Microalgae as a Tool for Efficient Light Utilization in H2 Production and Other Biotechnology Applications 355
15.1.\rIntroduction 357
15.2.\rTechnical Aspects of Microalgae Immobilization 357
15.2.1.\rNatural Immobilization Approaches 358
15.2.2.\rArtificial Immobilization Approaches 359
15.3.\rBiotechnological Applications of Immobilized Microalgae 362
15.3.1.\rRemoval of Inorganic Nutrients 362
15.3.2.\rHeavy Metals Removal from Wastewater 363
15.3.3.\rRemoval of Organic Pollutants 364
15.3.4.\rIntegration of Wastewater Treatment and Biofuels Production 365
15.4.\rHydrogen Photoproduction by Immobilized Microalgae 365
15.4.1.\rHydrogen Photoproduction by the Model Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 366
15.4.2.\rComparison of Immobilized Green Algae and Cyanobacteria as Hydrogen Producers 370
15.4.3.\rApproaches to Cell Co-immobilization 373
15.4.4.\rEngineered Algal Biofilms for Efficient Light Utilization and Hydrogen Production 375
15.5.\rConcluding Remarks and Future Directions 377
Acknowledgements 378
References 378
Chapter 16 - Development of Photobioreactors for H2 Production from Algae 385
16.1.\rIntroduction 387
16.2.\rProduction of Hydrogen from Microalgae 387
16.3.\rDescription of the Process 389
16.4.\rMajor Factors Influencing Photobioreactor Performance 391
16.5.\rFundamentals of Photobioreactors for Hydrogen Production 394
16.5.1.\rDesign of Tubular Photobioreactors 394
16.6.\rPerformance of the Proposed Two-step, H2-production System at Pilot Scale 411
16.7.\rConcluding Remarks and Future Developments 415
Acknowledgements 415
References 416
Chapter 17 - Microalgal Hydrogen Production Outdoors: First Attempts 419
17.1.\rIntroduction 421
17.2.\rTheoretical Limit for Biological Hydrogen Production 421
17.2.1.\rBiotechnology of Hydrogen Production in Laboratory-scale Bioreactors 423
17.2.2.\rAttempt to Scale up the Hydrogen Production Process with C. reinhardtii. Experiments in Tubular Reactors of 50 and 110 Li... 426
17.3.\rGrowth and Hydrogen Production of Outdoor Cultures of Synechocystis PCC 6803 Using an Indirect Light-driven Process 429
17.4.\rBiological Constraints in the Outdoor Production of Hydrogen with Microalgae 432
17.5.\rFuture Prospects 434
Acknowledgements 435
References 435
Chapter 18 - Material Characteristics and Requirements for Photobiological Hydrogen Production Applications 439
18.1.\rIntroduction 441
18.2.\rRequirements for Materials Used for Hydrogen Photobioreactors 441
18.3.\rHydrogen Leakage 443
18.4.\rToxic Effects 448
18.5.\rMaterials for Use in Hydrogen Photobioreactors 451
18.5.1.\rGlass 451
18.5.2.\rPlastic 452
18.5.3.\rMetal Components 453
18.5.4.\rMetal Coating Materials 455
18.5.5.\rElastomers 456
18.6.\rConclusion 458
Acknowledgements 461
References 461
Chapter 19 - Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Photobiological Hydrogen Production 465
19.1.\rIntroduction 467
19.2.\rLCA Background 468
19.2.1.\rLCA Definition 468
19.2.2.\rGoal and Scope Definition 468
19.2.3.\rLife Cycle Inventory 469
19.2.4.\rLife Cycle Impact Assessment 469
19.2.5.\rInterpretation of the Results 470
19.3.\rReview of LCA Studies of H2 Photobiological Production 470
19.3.1.\rScope of the Studies 471
19.3.2.\rLCI of Algal H2-production Systems 471
19.3.3.\rLCIA of Algal H2-production Systems 477
19.4.\rDiscussion 478
19.5.\rConclusions and Future Directions 479
References 479
Postscript - Future Perspectives 483
Subject Index 489