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Lavin's Radiography for Veterinary Technicians - E-Book

Lavin's Radiography for Veterinary Technicians - E-Book

Marg Brown | Lois Brown


Additional Information

Book Details


Make sure you understand and know how to use the very latest diagnostic imaging technology with Lavin’s Radiography for Veterinary Technicians, 6th Edition! All aspects of imaging – including production, positioning, and evaluation of radiographs – are combined into this comprehensive text. All chapters have been thoroughly reviewed, revised, and updated with vivid color equipment photos, positioning drawings, and detailed anatomy drawings. From foundational concepts to the latest in diagnostic imaging, this text is a valuable resource for students, technicians, and veterinarians alike!

  • More than 1000 full-color photos and updated radiographic images visually demonstrate the relationship between anatomy and positioning.
  • UNIQUE! Non-manual restraint techniques including sandbags, tape, rope, sponges, sedation and combinations improve your safety and radiation protection.
  • UNIQUE! Comprehensive dental radiography coverage gives you a meaningful background in the dentistry subsection of vet radiography.
  • Increased emphasis on digital radiography, including quality factors and post-processing, keeps you up-to-date on the most recent developments in digital technology.
  • Broad coverage of radiologic science, physics, imaging and protection provide you with foundations for good technique.
  • Objectives, key terms, outlines, chapter introductions and key points help you organize information to ensure you understand what is most important in every chapter.
  • Color anatomy art created by an expert medical illustrator help you to recognize and avoid making imaging mistakes.
  • Check It Out boxes provide suggestions for practical actions that help better understand content being presented.
  • Points to ponder boxes emphasize information critical to performing tasks correctly.
  • Key points boxes help you to review critical content presented in the radiographic positioning chapters.
  • NEW! All chapters have been reviewed, revised and updated to present content in a way that is easy to follow and understand.
  • NEW! Updated radiation protection chapter focuses on the importance of safety in the lab.
  • NEW! Additional popular diagnostic information includes MRI/PET and CT/PET scans.
  • NEW! Coverage of Sante’s Rule that clearly explains the mathematical process for creating a technique chart
  • NEW! Chapters on Dental Imaging and Radiography, Quality Control, and Testing and Artifacts combines existing content with updates into these important parts of radiography.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front Cover cover
Inside Front Cover ifc1
Lavin's Radiography for Veterinary Technicians i
Copyright Page iv
Dedication v
Contributors vi
Reviewers vii
Preface ix
New Features ix
Organization ix
Part One: Diagnostic Imaging ix
New Features of Part One ix
Part Two: Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy x
Additional Learning Resources x
Acknowledgments xi
Table Of Contents xii
One Diagnostic Imaging 1
Part 1 text 1
One The Technical Side of Imaging 2
1 The Basics of Atoms and Electricity 2
Outline 2
Learning Objectives 2
Key Terms 2
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 2
The Discovery of X-Rays 3
Elements and Atomic Theory 3
Matter and Energy 4
The Electromagnetic Spectrum 4
The Dual Nature of X-Rays 5
Energy as Wavelengths and Frequencies 6
Energy as Particles 6
Summary 7
Review Questions 7
2 Diagnostic X-Ray Production 8
Outline 8
Learning Objectives 8
Key Terms 9
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 9
The X-Ray Tube 9
The Cathode 9
The Anode 11
The Rotating Anode 11
The Rotor Circuit 11
The Stationary Anode 12
The Anode Heel Effect 12
The Line Focus Principle 13
Off-Focus Radiation and Heat Bloom 13
Electricity 13
The Wall Switch 13
The Electric Circuit 13
Potential Difference 15
Line Voltage Compensator 15
Circuit Breakers: Amperage and Ground 16
Current (Amperage) 16
Ground 16
Direct Current and Alternating Current 16
Direct Current 16
Alternating Current 16
Transformers 17
Rectifiers 18
Single-Phase Circuits 19
Three-Phase Circuits 19
High-Frequency Pulses 19
The X-Ray Unit 19
Components of the X-Ray Unit 19
Large-Animal Portable X-Ray Units 20
X-Ray Production 22
The Exposure Switch 22
Exposure Switch Variations 22
Producing X-Rays 23
Heat Dissipation 23
The Tube Rating Chart 24
Focal Spot Bloom 24
Minimum Power Supply Requirements 24
Summary 25
Review Questions 25
3 Radiobiology and Radiation Protection for the Patient and the Worker 27
Outline 27
Learning Objectives 27
Key Terms 27
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 27
Radiobiology 28
Cell Biology in Brief 28
Radiation Effects 28
Radioactivity 29
Intensity of Radiation 29
Radiation-Monitoring Equipment 30
Measurement of Radiation Doses 30
Types of Dosimeters 30
Use of Dosimeters 31
Radiation Exposure 31
Recommended Dose Limits for Radiation Workers and Nonradiation Workers 31
The Occupational Health and Safety Acts (Canada, United States, and International) 32
Legislation Regarding Radiation Doses to the Health Care Worker 33
Radiation Units 33
Principles of Radiation Protection 34
Time 34
Distance (The Inverse Square Law) 34
Shielding 35
Radiation-Protective Devices 35
Leaded Protection Materials 35
Use and Care 35
Lead Specifications 35
Further Methods to Reduce Radiation Exposure to the Veterinary Handler 36
Immobilization Equipment 36
Veterinary Facilities Inspection Checklist 37
Radiation Safety Websites 37
Summary 39
Review Questions 39
Two Film Processing and Digital Imaging 41
4 Imaging on Film 41
Outline 41
Learning Objectives 41
Key Terms 41
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 41
X-Ray Cassettes 43
Intensifying Screens 44
Screen Composition 44
Screen Characteristics 44
The Blue/Green Question 45
More About Color 46
Screen Speed 47
Cassette Identification vs. Screen Identification 47
Luminescence and Phosphorescence 48
Screen Aging Response 48
Speed Response Differences 48
Radiography Film 49
The Development of Film-Based Imaging 50
Composition of Radiography Film 51
Film Base 52
Film Emulsion 52
The Supercoat 52
Latent Image Formation 53
Base + Fog 53
The Response of Film to Light 54
Film Color 54
Film Speed 54
Film Speed and White Box Film 55
Storage of Film, Cassettes, and Screens 55
Film 55
Cassettes and Screens 56
Other Equipment and Accessories 56
Summary 56
Image Gallery 56
Review Questions 61
5 Producing the Image 64
Outline 64
Learning Objectives 64
Key Terms 64
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 64
The Technique Chart 65
The Radiography Unit 65
Technical Factors 65
Radiographic Contrast vs. Subject Contrast 66
Distance, Kilovoltage, Milliamperage, and Time 66
Distance and the Inverse Square Law 66
Kilovoltage, Milliamperage, and Time 67
Billiards Analogy 67
Optimizing Kilovoltage 69
The 15% Rule for Changing Kilovoltage 69
Equipment Purchase 70
Developing Technique Charts 70
Use of a Phantom 70
Procedure 71
Sante’s Rule 71
Grids and Grid Trays 74
Tabletop vs. Grid Tray in Film/Screen Imaging 74
Producing a Working Technique Chart 74
The Three “Rules” 74
Rule 74
Two Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy 223
In the positioning chapters the following will be stressed: 223
15 Overview of Positioning 224
Outline 224
Learning Objectives 224
Key Terms 224
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 224
Technical Note: 224
Positional Terminology 225
Rules of Positioning 225
Limb Terminology 226
Patient Positioning 226
The Patient 226
Patient Preparation 228
Positioning Aids for Human Safety 228
Required Views and Positioning Guidelines 230
Image Identification 233
Viewing Radiographs 234
Radiographic Checklist 234
Review Questions 235
Bibliography 236
16 Small Animal Abdomen 237
Outline 237
Learning Objectives 237
Key Terms 237
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 237
Technical Note: 237
Radiographic Concerns 238
Positions 239
Lateral—Routine 239
Positioning 239
Comments and Tips 239
Ventrodorsal—Routine 241
Positioning 241
Comments and Tips 242
Further Views 243
Dorsoventral—Ancillary 243
Positioning 243
Comments and Tips 243
Lateral Decubitus (Ventrodorsal View With Horizontal Beam)—Ancillary 244
Positioning 244
Comments and Tips 244
Modified Lateral and Lateral Oblique—Ancillary 245
Modified Lateral—Ancillary 245
Positioning 245
Comments and Tips 245
Lateral Oblique—Ancillary 246
Positioning 246
Comments and Tips 246
Anatomical Abdominal Radiographic Concerns 246
Note 247
Review Questions 251
References 252
Bibliography 252
17 Small Animal Thorax 253
Outline 253
Learning Objectives 253
Key Terms 253
Key terms are defined in the Glossary on the Evolve website. 253
Technical Note: 253
Radiographic and Positioning Concerns 254
Positions 256
Lateral Thorax—Routine 256
Positioning 256
Comments and Tips 257
Ventrodorsal Thorax—Routine 260
Positioning 260
Comments and Tips 261
Dorsoventral Thorax—Routine 262
Positioning 262
Comments and Tips 263
Ancillary Views 264
Horizontal Beam Radiography—Ancillary 264
General Comments and Tips for the Horizontal Views 264
Lateral Decubitus View (Ventrodorsal View With Horizontal Beam)—Ancillary 264
Positioning, Comments, and Tips 264
Dorsoventral or Ventrodorsal Decubitus View (Horizontal Beam Lateral Radiograph)—Ancillary 265
Index 615
A 615
B 615
C 615
D 617
E 618
F 618
G 619
H 620
I 620
K 621
L 621
M 622
N 622
O 623
P 623
Q 623
R 624
S 624
T 626
U 626
V 627
W 627
X 627
Basic Concepts IBC2
Fractions IBC2
Addition and Subtraction IBC2
Whole Numbers IBC2
Proportionality (Variation) of Numbers IBC2
Direct Proportionality IBC2
Indirect Proportionality IBC2
Units of Measurement IBC2
Mass IBC2
Length IBC2
Time IBC2
Prefixes IBC2
Inside Back Cover ibc1