## Engineering Mathematics

(2017)

### Abstract

Engineering Mathematics is the unparalleled undergraduate textbook for students of electrical, electronic, communications and systems engineering.  Tried and tested over many years, this widely used textbook is now in its 5th edition, having been fully updated and revised.  This new edition includes an even greater emphasis on the application of mathematics within a range of engineering contexts.  It features detailed explanation of why a technique is important to engineers.  In addition, it provides essential guidance in how to use mathematics to solve engineering problems. This approach ensures a deep and practical understanding of the role of mathematics in modern engineering.

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Title Page iii
Dedication v
Contents vii
Preface xvii
Acknowledgements xix
Chapter 1 Review of algebraic techniques 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Laws of indices 2
1.3 Number bases 11
1.4 Polynomial equations 20
1.5 Algebraic fractions 26
1.6 Solution of inequalities 33
1.7 Partial fractions 39
1.8 Summation notation 46
Review exercises 1 50
Chapter 2 Engineering functions 54
2.1 Introduction 54
2.2 Numbers and intervals 55
2.3 Basic concepts of functions 56
2.4 Review of some common engineering functions and techniques 70
Review exercises 2 113
Chapter 3 The trigonometric functions 115
3.1 Introduction 115
3.3 The trigonometric ratios 116
3.4 The sine, cosine and tangent functions 120
3.5 The sinc x function 123
3.6 Trigonometric identities 125
3.7 Modelling waves using sin t and cos t 131
3.8 Trigonometric equations 144
Review exercises 3 150
Chapter 4 Coordinate systems 154
4.1 Introduction 154
4.2 Cartesian coordinate system – two dimensions 154
4.3 Cartesian coordinate system – three dimensions 157
4.4 Polar coordinates 159
4.5 Some simple polar curves 163
4.6 Cylindrical polar coordinates 166
4.7 Spherical polar coordinates 170
Review exercises 4 173
Chapter 5 Discrete mathematics 175
5.1 Introduction 175
5.2 Set theory 175
5.3 Logic 183
5.4 Boolean algebra 185
Review exercises 5 197
Chapter 6 Sequences and series 200
6.1 Introduction 200
6.2 Sequences 201
6.3 Series 209
6.4 The binomial theorem 214
6.5 Power series 218
6.6 Sequences arising from the iterative solution of non-linear equations 219
Review exercises 6 222
Chapter 7 Vectors 224
7.1 Introduction 224
7.2 Vectors and scalars: basic concepts 224
7.3 Cartesian components 232
7.4 Scalar fields and vector fields 240
7.5 The scalar product 241
7.6 The vector product 246
7.7 Vectors of n dimensions 253
Review exercises 7 255
Chapter 8 Matrix algebra 257
8.1 Introduction 257
8.2 Basic definitions 258
8.3 Addition, subtraction and multiplication 259
8.4 Using matrices in the translation and rotation of vectors 267
8.5 Some special matrices 271
8.6 The inverse of a 2 x 2 matrix 274
8.7 Determinants 278
8.8 The inverse of a 3 x 3 matrix 281
8.9 Application to the solution of simultaneous equations 283
8.10 Gaussian elimination 286
8.11 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 294
8.12 Analysis of electrical networks 307
8.13 Iterative techniques for the solution of simultaneous equations 312
8.14 Computer solutions of matrix problems 319
Review exercises 8 321
Chapter 9 Complex numbers 324
9.1 Introduction 324
9.2 Complex numbers 325
9.3 Operations with complex numbers 328
9.4 Graphical representation of complex numbers 332
9.5 Polar form of a complex number 333
9.6 Vectors and complex numbers 336
9.7 The exponential form of a complex number 337
9.8 Phasors 340
9.9 De Moivre’s theorem 344
9.10 Loci and regions of the complex plane 351
Review exercises 9 354
Chapter 10 Differentiation 356
10.1 Introduction 356
10.2 Graphical approach to differentiation 357
10.3 Limits and continuity 358
10.4 Rate of change at a specific point 362
10.5 Rate of change at a general point 364
10.6 Existence of derivatives 370
10.7 Common derivatives 372
10.8 Differentiation as a linear operator 375
Review exercises 10 385
Chapter 11 Techniques of differentiation 386
11.1 Introduction 386
11.2 Rules of differentiation 386
11.3 Parametric, implicit and logarithmic differentiation 393
11.4 Higher derivatives 400
Review exercises 11 404
Chapter 12 Applications of differentiation 406
12.1 Introduction 406
12.2 Maximum points and minimum points 406
12.3 Points of inflexion 415
12.4 The Newton–Raphson method for solving equations 418
12.5 Differentiation of vectors 423
Review exercises 12 427
Chapter 13 Integration 428
13.1 Introduction 428
13.2 Elementary integration 429
13.3 Definite and indefinite integrals 442
Review exercises 13 453
Chapter 14 Techniques of integration 457
14.1 Introduction 457
14.2 Integration by parts 457
14.3 Integration by substitution 463
14.4 Integration using partial fractions 466
Review exercises 14 468
Chapter 15 Applications of integration 471
15.1 Introduction 471
15.2 Average value of a function 471
15.3 Root mean square value of a function 475
Review exercises 15 479
Chapter 16 Further topics in integration 480
16.1 Introduction 480
16.2 Orthogonal functions 480
16.3 Improper integrals 483
16.4 Integral properties of the delta function 489
16.5 Integration of piecewise continuous functions 491
16.6 Integration of vectors 493
Review exercises 16 494
Chapter 17 Numerical integration 496
17.1 Introduction 496
17.2 Trapezium rule 496
17.3 Simpson’s rule 500
Review exercises 17 505
Chapter 18 Taylor polynomials, Taylor series and Maclaurin series 507
18.1 Introduction 507
18.2 Linearization using first-order Taylor polynomials 508
18.3 Second-order Taylor polynomials 513
18.4 Taylor polynomials of the nth order 517
18.5 Taylor’s formula and the remainder term 521
18.6 Taylor and Maclaurin series 524
Review exercises 18 532
Chapter 19 Ordinary differential equations I 534
19.1 Introduction 534
19.2 Basic definitions 535
19.3 First-order equations: simple equations and separation of variables 540
19.4 First-order linear equations: use of an integrating factor 547
19.5 Second-order linear equations 558
19.6 Constant coefficient equations 560
19.7 Series solution of differential equations 584
19.8 Bessel’s equation and Bessel functions 587
Review exercises 19 601
Chapter 20 Ordinary differential equations II 603
20.1 Introduction 603
20.2 Analogue simulation 603
20.3 Higher order equations 606
20.4 State-space models 609
20.5 Numerical methods 615
20.6 Euler’s method 616
20.7 Improved Euler method 620
20.8 Runge–Kutta method of order 4 623
Review exercises 20 626
Chapter 21 The Laplace transform 627
21.1 Introduction 627
21.2 Definition of the Laplace transform 628
21.3 Laplace transforms of some common functions 629
21.4 Properties of the Laplace transform 631
21.5 Laplace transform of derivatives and integrals 635
21.6 Inverse Laplace transforms 638
21.7 Using partial fractions to find the inverse Laplace transform 641
21.8 Finding the inverse Laplace transform using complex numbers 643
21.9 The convolution theorem 647
21.10 Solving linear constant coefficient differential equations using the Laplace transform 649
21.11 Transfer functions 659
21.12 Poles, zeros and the s plane 668
21.13 Laplace transforms of some special functions 675
Review exercises 21 678
Chapter 22 Difference equations and the z transform 681
22.1 Introduction 681
22.2 Basic definitions 682
22.3 Rewriting difference equations 686
22.4 Block diagram representation of difference equations 688
22.5 Design of a discrete-time controller 693
22.6 Numerical solution of difference equations 695
22.7 Definition of the z transform 698
22.8 Sampling a continuous signal 702
22.9 The relationship between the z transform and the Laplace transform 704
22.10 Properties of the z transform 709
22.11 Inversion of z transforms 715
22.12 The z transform and difference equations 718
Review exercises 22 720
Chapter 23 Fourier series 722
23.1 Introduction 722
23.2 Periodic waveforms 723
23.3 Odd and even functions 726
23.4 Orthogonality relations and other useful identities 732
23.5 Fourier series 733
23.6 Half-range series 745
23.7 Parseval’s theorem 748
23.8 Complex notation 749
23.9 Frequency response of a linear system 751
Review exercises 23 755
Chapter 24 The Fourier transform 757
24.1 Introduction 757
24.2 The Fourier transform – definitions 758
24.3 Some properties of the Fourier transform 761
24.4 Spectra 766
24.5 The t-ω duality principle 768
24.6 Fourier transforms of some special functions 770
24.7 The relationship between the Fourier transform and the Laplace transform 772
24.8 Convolution and correlation 774
24.9 The discrete Fourier transform 783
24.10 Derivation of the d.f.t. 787
24.11 Using the d.f.t. to estimate a Fourier transform 790
24.12 Matrix representation of the d.f.t. 792
24.13 Some properties of the d.f.t. 793
24.14 The discrete cosine transform 795
24.15 Discrete convolution and correlation 801
Review exercises 24 821
Chapter 25 Functions of several variables 823
25.1 Introduction 823
25.2 Functions of more than one variable 823
25.3 Partial derivatives 825
25.4 Higher order derivatives 829
25.5 Partial differential equations 832
25.6 Taylor polynomials and Taylor series in two variables 835
25.7 Maximum and minimum points of a function of two variables 841
Review exercises 25 846
Chapter 26 Vector calculus 849
26.1 Introduction 849
26.2 Partial differentiation of vectors 849
26.3 The gradient of a scalar field 851
26.4 The divergence of a vector field 856
26.5 The curl of a vector field 859
26.6 Combining the operators grad, div and curl 861
26.7 Vector calculus and electromagnetism 864
Review exercises 26 865
Chapter 27 Line integrals and multiple integrals 867
27.1 Introduction 867
27.2 Line integrals 867
27.3 Evaluation of line integrals in two dimensions 871
27.4 Evaluation of line integrals in three dimensions 873
27.5 Conservative fields and potential functions 875
27.6 Double and triple integrals 880
27.7 Some simple volume and surface integrals 889
27.8 The divergence theorem and Stokes’ theorem 895
27.9 Maxwell’s equations in integral form 899
Review exercises 27 901
Chapter 28 Probability 903
28.1 Introduction 903
28.2 Introducing probability 904
28.3 Mutually exclusive events: the addition law of probability 909
28.4 Complementary events 913
28.5 Concepts from communication theory 915
28.6 Conditional probability: the multiplication law 919
28.7 Independent events 925
Review exercises 28 930
Chapter 29 Statistics and probability distributions 933
29.1 Introduction 933
29.2 Random variables 934
29.3 Probability distributions – discrete variable 935
29.4 Probability density functions – continuous variable 936
29.5 Mean value 938
29.6 Standard deviation 941
29.7 Expected value of a random variable 943
29.8 Standard deviation of a random variable 946
29.9 Permutations and combinations 948
29.10 The binomial distribution 953
29.11 The Poisson distribution 957
29.12 The uniform distribution 961
29.13 The exponential distribution 962
29.14 The normal distribution 963
29.15 Reliability engineering 970
Review exercises 29 977
Appendix I Representing a continuous function and a sequence as a sum of weighted impulses 979
Appendix II The Greek alphabet 981
Appendix III SI units and prefixes 982
Appendix IV The binomial expansion of (n-N/n)n 982
Index 983
A 983
B 984
C 984
D 987
E 988
F 990
G 991
H 991
I 992
J 993
K 993
L 993
M 995
N 996
O 996
P 996
Q 998
R 998
S 999
T 1001
U 1002
V 1002
W 1003
X 1003
Y 1004
Z 1004