Menu Expand
Edexcel A Level History, Paper 3: Poverty, public health and the state in Britain c1780-1939 Student Book

Edexcel A Level History, Paper 3: Poverty, public health and the state in Britain c1780-1939 Student Book

Rosemary Rees


Additional Information

Book Details


This book:

  • covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material
  • helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities
  • provides assessment support for A level with sample answers, sources, practice questions and guidance to help you tackle the new-style exam questions.

It also comes with three years' access to ActiveBook, an online, digital version of your textbook to help you personalise your learning as you go through the course - perfect for revision.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents 3
How to use this book 4
Introduction: A Level History 6
Introduction: Poverty, public health and the state in Britain, c1780-1939 8
Aspects in breadth: lives in peril - the health of the nation, c1780-1939 10
3.1: The impetus for public health reforms 10
Introduction 10
Why did reforms to public health become such a pressing issue from c1780? 10
Public health problems caused by the Industrial Revolution 11
The impact of epidemics on the health of the nation 16
Increasing understanding about the causes of disease 17
The cholera epidemic, 1832 17
Reports on the state of towns 20
Drainage systems and water supplies: technological advance 24
To what extent did attitudes to public health reforms change in the years 1780-1939? 26
Why did attitudes to public health reforms change? 26
How far did the role of government grow in the 19th and early 20th centuries? 29
Conclusion 34
3.2: Changes in public health 36
Introduction 36
How effective were local initiatives in improving the health of the public, c1780-1939? 36
Local government action and reaction, c1780-1848 36
Implementing the Public Health Act 1848 38
Keeping the people healthy: housing 40
Keeping the people healthy: vaccinations 44
The work of medical officers of health 46
Keeping the people healthy: TB and sanatoria 47
Keeping the people healthy: the children 48
How significant was the work of individuals in improving public health, c1780-1939? 49
Edward Jenner (1749-1823): vaccination against smallpox 49
Edwin Chadwick (1800-90): innovative administrator 51
John Snow (1813-58) and the Broad Street pump 53
Joseph Bazalgette (1819-91): combining ideas and technology 57
Marie Stopes (1880-1958): smaller, healthier families 60
Conclusion 62
Aspects in depth: poverty, the people and the law 64
3.3: Paupers and pauperism, 1780-1834 64
Introduction 64
How effectively did parish outdoor relief deal with able-bodied paupers? 65
Reliance on the parish 65
Outdoor relief 68
What impact did the provision of parish indoor relief have upon pauperism? 71
Poorhouses, workhouses and houses of correction 71
Gilbert’s Act 1782 72
The Sturges-Bourne Acts, 1818 and 1819 73
Why did the pressure for change intensify in the years 1780-1834? 75
What were the financial pressures for change? 75
Regional differences 78
What were the ideological arguments for change? 80
The influence of utilitarianism 82
Why did the government take action in 1832? 85
3.4: Less eligibility: the Poor Law Amendment Act and its impact, 1832-47 86
Introduction 86
In what ways did central government set about reforming the poor laws? 87
How did the Commission of Enquiry set about its work? 87
What did the Royal Commission’s report recommend? 88
What were the main terms of the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act? 89
How was the Poor Law Commission set up? 90
What was the Poor Law Commission’s work, 1834-47? 90
The role of Edwin Chadwick 92
What impact did the workhouse have on the lives of Paupers? 93
Workhouse architecture: designed to deter? 93
Workhouse regime: designed to demoralise? 94
Workhouse staff: appointed to intimidate? 99
How effective was opposition to the implementation of the poor law amendment act? 101
What roles did Richard Oastler and John Fielden play in resisting the new Poor Law? 103
3.5: The government, self-help and charity, 1847-80 108
Introduction 108
To what extent did central government control of poor relief change in the years 1847-80? 109
Why did the Andover workhouse scandal lead to the end of the Poor Law Commission? 109
The Poor Law Board, 1847-75 111
What was the impact of the Parliamentary Reform Act 1867 on Poor Law policy? 114
The Local Government Board and relief 115
How significant were charity and self-help in dealing with the problem of poverty? 116
What was the significance of the work of the Charity Organisation Society? 116
How effective were friendly societies? 117
The welfare work of unions and co-operatives 119
How far did individuals develop, and also challenge, the prevailing orthodoxy concerning poverty and poor relief? 121
Samuel Smiles (1812-1904): author and political reformer 123
Henry Mayhew (1812-87): investigative journalist 124
Charles Dickens (1812-70): novelist and social critic 125
3.6: Social and welfare reforms: pressure and action, 1880-1914 130
Introduction 130
Why was there pressure for social reform in the years 1880-1914? 130
Charles Booth (1840-1916) 132
Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree (1871-1954) 134
The Fabian Society: a think tank 138
The impact of the Boer War 139
What was the significance of the royal commission on the poor laws, 1905-09? 141
The majority report 141
The minority report 141
To what extent were the liberal government reforms, 1906-14, effective in relieving poverty? 143
Old age pensions 144
Conclusion 150
3.7: Depression and the dole: poverty in the interwar years, 1920-39 152
Introduction 152
What was the impact of the depression on the british economy? 153
The decline of heavy industry 153
Changing patterns of trade and finance 156
Prosperity for some 157
How effective were the Jarrow march and the hunger marches of the 1930s? 158
The Jarrow march, 5 October-1 November 1936 158
Hunger marches 161
Ellen Wilkinson and Jarrow 163
How far did government action relieve poverty in the 1930s? 164
The second Labour government, 1929-31 164
The National Government, 1931-40 167
Conclusion 172
Preparing for your A Level Paper 3 exam 175
Index 188
Acknowledgements 191