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Edexcel A Level History, Paper 3: Germany, 1871-1990: united, divided and re-united Student Book

Edexcel A Level History, Paper 3: Germany, 1871-1990: united, divided and re-united Student Book

David Brown


Additional Information

Book Details


This book:

  • covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material
  • helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities
  • provides assessment support for A level with sample answers, sources, practice questions and guidance to help you tackle the new-style exam questions.

It also comes with three years' access to ActiveBook, an online, digital version of your textbook to help you personalise your learning as you go through the course - perfect for revision.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents 3
How to use this book 4
Introduction: A Level History 6
Introduction: Germany, 1871-1990: united, divided and reunited 8
Aspects in breadth: prosperity and social change, 1871-1990 10
3.1: Social change in Germany and West Germany 10
Introduction 10
To what extent did german class structures change between 1871 and 1990? 11
The growth of the urban working class 11
Bismarck’s introduction of pensions and health insurance in the 1880s 13
The artisan tradition and its impact 16
The slow decline of the landowning elite and the peasantry 18
The rise of the white-collar workers 24
Social mobility after the Second World War 27
To what extent did the role of women in german society change between 1871 and 1990? 28
Roles in the family and the workplace in the 19th century 28
The impacts of the First World War 29
Nazi policies 33
The Second World War and post-war opportunities 35
3.2: Economic change in Germany and West Germany 38
Introduction 38
How far did the german economy change from 1871 to 1990? 39
The reasons for 19th-century industrial growth 39
Change in German industry during the 20th century 41
Mass unemployment from 1930 to 1932 44
The post-war ‘economic miracle’ 47
Change in German agriculture during the 20th century 48
The slump in agricultural prices in the 1920s 48
To what extent did the role of government policies influence german economic developments from 1871 to 1990? 50
The introduction of protection, 1879 50
The building of a large navy from 1898 to 1914 52
The impact of Nazi policies 54
The impact of Marshall Aid 59
The impact of membership of the European Community and the Common Agricultural Policy post-1956 61
Aspects in depth: different approaches to the problem of difference 64
3.3: Ruling the Second Reich, 1871-79 64
Introduction 64
How far did the political system successfully overcome the key divisions facing Germany in 1871? 65
Trying to reconcile unity and division 65
The federal government and the Länder 68
To what extent did the reichstag impact on german regional and social divisions between 1871 and 1879? 70
The impact of regional and social divisions 70
How far was bismarck successful in achieving his key foreign and domestic political goals between 1871 and 1879? 73
Bismarck’s co-operation, and eventual break, with the National Liberals 73
The Kulturkampf 76
The appeal to nationalism to achieve unity 79
The War in Sight crisis 82
3.4: The birth of democratic Germany, 1917-19 86
Introduction 86
To what extent did the first world war cause political and social division in germany between 1914 and 1918? 87
Strains of war, tensions and military dictatorship, 1917 87
The roles of Hindenburg and Ludendorff 90
Erzberger’s Peace Resolution 91
Emergence of the Independent Socialist Party 92
To what extent did the german revolution alter the political system between 1918 and 1919? 93
Constitutional reforms from above, 1918 93
The role of Prince Max of Baden 94
Disintegration, defeat and revolution, 1918-19 97
The roles of Ebert, Scheidemann and Rosa Luxemburg 98
To what extent did the foundation of the weimar republic in 1919 achieve a new unity for the german nation based on democratic values? 101
The Weimar Republic 101
The importance of the Weimar Constitution, including its salient features and their strengths and potential weaknesses for achieving freedom and stability 105
3.5: A new Reich, 1933-35 108
Introduction 108
How effectively did hitler establish the nazi dictatorship between 1933 and 1935? 108
Creating a totalitarian state 108
Abolition of political parties and trade unions 112
The establishment of DAF 115
The 'co-ordination' of regional and local government 115
The impact of the Night of the Long Knives 116
To what extent was Hitler a dictator by 1935? 118
Hitler’s approach to government 118
Decline of cabinet meetings 121
Relations with the army 121
The extent of Hitler’s power by 1935 123
How successful was the Nazis’ attempt to create a volksgemeinschaft between 1933 and 1935? 123
The relationship of state and party 123
Attempts to create a Volksgemeinschaft 125
Racial policy, including the signifi cance of the Nuremberg Laws 127
3.6: Establishing and ruling the new Federal Republic, 1949-60 130
Introduction 130
How successful was the constitution of the new west German federal republic in establishing a stable and long-term democracy? 131
The creation of the FRG and the impact of the new Constitution: the attempt toreconcile difference and liberty 131
How effective was the new Christian democratic union of konrad adenauer and the reconstituted SPD in shaping the new federal republic from 1949 to 1960? 138
The importance of Adenauer and the CDU in shaping the newFederal Republic 138
Changes in the nature of the SPD and their significance for the shaping of the Federal Republic 142
To what extent did the FRG undergo a process of de-Nazification in the 1950s? 146
The process and significance of de-Nazification and ‘coming to terms with the past’ in the 1950s 146
3.7: Reunification: recreating a united Germany, 1989-90 152
Introduction 152
What caused the flood of refugees from the GDR in 1989? 153
Reasons for the flood of refugees from the GDR in 1989 154
What impact did the revolution in the GDR and Kohl’s ten point plan in 1989 have on German reunification? 158
The revolution in the GDR in 1989, and its impact on the FRG 158
The significance of Kohl’s Ten Point Plan 160
What were the key reasons for German reunification in October 1990? 163
Different levels of prosperity in the GDR and FRG 163
Continued migration from the GDR 164
The crumbling of the GDR state 166
The process and problems of reunifi cation and reasons for its acceptance by the Four Powers 168
Preparing for your A Level Paper 3 exam 175
Index 188
Acknowledgements 190