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Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Religion and state in early modern Europe Student Book

Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Religion and state in early modern Europe Student Book

Alison Gundy | Hilary Brash | Adam Kidson


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Book Details


This book covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents 3
How to use this book 4
Introduction: AS/A Level History 6
England, 1509-1603: authority, nation and religion 8
Introduction 8
1.1: Monarchy and government, 1509-88 10
Introduction 10
What was the Role of the Monarchy in Tudor England, 1509–88? 11
Personal and political qualities of the Tudor monarchs 12
What were popular attitudes to the Tudor monarchy? 13
What challenges did the Tudor monarchy face between 1509 and 1588? 15
What were 16th century attitudes towards female rulers? 20
How did Mary approach the issue of marriage? 21
How did Elizabeth I approach the issue of marriage? 21
How did the Role of Parliament Change between 1509 and 1588? 23
The power of parliament 23
How was parliament organised? 23
Henry VIII’s parliaments before 1529 23
From ‘king and parliament’ to ‘king-in-parliament’ 23
The growing confi dence of parliament under Elizabeth I, 1558–88 25
The Principal Servants of the Crown, 1509-88 27
The role of Wolsey, Cromwell and Cecil in Tudor government 27
Changes to the structure of government 31
1.2: Religious changes, 1509-88 36
Introduction 36
How and why did Religious Change Happen, 1527-63? 36
Why did the break with Rome happen? 36
The end of papal power in England under Henry VIII 38
Religious change under Mary 43
The Elizabethan Church Settlement, 1558-63 46
To what Extent did Catholicism Survive in England? 49
What were popular attitudes to Catholicism? 49
The extent of the religious changes,1529-36 50
How and why did Catholicism survive in the regions? 51
Recusancy and the Jesuit missions under Elizabeth I 52
What was the role of the Catholic nobility? 54
How and why did Protestantism Grow, 1509-88? 55
Protestant influences in England before 1527 55
Protestant influences from the 1520s 56
What was the role of Anne Boleyn? 56
The development of Protestant influences, 1529-47 56
How did Protestantism develop under Edward VI? 57
What was Puritanism? 57
How did Puritanism develop during Elizabeth’s reign? 58
How signifi cant was the development of Puritanism? 60
1.3: State control and popular resistance, 1509-88 62
Introduction 62
How did Tudor Monarchs Control the Country? 62
What were the Marches? 62
The Marcher Council 63
The Council of the North and its role 63
What was the role of the nobility in maintaining control? 65
Justices of the Peace 66
The role of the Lord Lieutenant under Elizabeth I 68
Why did population growth lead to increasing poverty? 68
Vagrancy and punishment 70
How did provision for poor relief change? 71
What was the importance of the role of charities and local authorities in poor relief? 73
How Serious was the Resistance to Tudor Rule? 75
Why was rebellion a potential threat to the Tudor monarchs? 75
What was the signifi cance of resistance to Tudor subsidies and taxation? 75
The nature and threat of popular risings, 1536-69 76
1.4: Economic, social and cultural change, 1509-88 88
Introduction 88
How Much did Patterns of Domestic and Foreign Trade Change during the Period? 88
What was the significance of the English wool and cloth industries? 88
How did the new draperies change the English cloth trade? 90
What was the impact of the migration of foreign textile workers? 90
The role of London as a market for goods 91
What were the consequences of exploration for the development of English trade? 92
How much did Tudor Society Change? 94
Population increase and the impact on Tudor society 94
What was the impact of the dissolution of the monasteries? 94
What was the impact of the spread of enclosure on the rural population? 96
What was the impact of growing urbanisation? 97
The growing professional classes 99
What was the significance of Changes to Tudor Culture, 1509-88 101
The impact of the growth of grammar schools and universities 101
What was the impact of the printing press? 102
How did religious change affect English culture? 105
Patronage and the development of drama, music and poetry 106
What was the signifi cance of royal and noble patronage of the arts? 107
What were the main developments in drama, music, poetry and architecture? 108
The impact of the cult of Gloriana 111
1.5: Was there a general crisis in government in the last years of Elizabeth I’s reign, 1589-1603? 114
Introduction 114
How Significant were the Threats to National Security from Spain and Ireland? 114
The Anglo-Spanish conflict - background 114
The Anglo-Spanish conflict between 1589 and 1603 116
To what extent did the conflict with Spain present a threat to national security? 118
Anglo-Irish relations under Elizabeth 119
Tyrone’s revolt, 1595–1603 119
To what extent did Tyrone’s revolt pose a threat to English national security? 120
To what extent did the threats from Spain and Ireland create a general crisisin government? 120
The impact of the succession issue 123
The development of faction in the 1590s 123
The factions of the 1590s: Cecil versus Essex 123
How did the growth of faction lead to political instability? 125
The succession issue and faction 126
To what extent did court faction lead to a crisis of government? 127
What was the Significance of Growing Conflict with Parliament? 129
What were the roles of the Crown and parliament, 1589-1603? 129
The 1589 and 1593 parliaments 130
The 1597 parliament 131
What was the significance of the 1601 parliament? 131
To what extent did the parliaments of 1589-1601 contribute to a crisis in government? 133
How Serious was the Social and Economic Distress of the 1590S? 135
Rising prices, food shortages and mortality rates 135
Riots and social tension 135
The government response to the social and economic problems of the 1590s 136
To what extent did harvest failure and social distress lead to a general crisis in government? 137
Conclusion 137
Preparing for your exams 139
Luther and the German Reformation, c1515-55 166
Introduction 166
2a.1: Conditions in early 16th century Germany 168
Introduction 168
What was the Holy Roman Empire? 170
The structure of central government 170
What power did the emperor and the princes have? 171
The imperial election of 1519 174
How Healthy was the Economy? 176
Was the German Catholic Church in need of Reform? 178
The influence of humanism 180
Why was anti-clericalism so prominent in the empire? 182
Why was there so much Hostility Towards the Papacy? 184
The Renaissance popes 185
The condition of the Church in Rome 186
Rome’s exploitation of Germany 186
2a.2: Luther’s early challenge to the Catholic Church 192
Introduction 192
What Shaped Luther’s Life to 1517? 194
Luther’s childhood 194
Luther’s education 195
Luther’s experiences as a monk, 1505-11 197
Luther at Wittenberg 199
The 95 Theses of 1517 200
Why did Luther write the 95 Theses? 201
What impact did the Theses have? 202
What Influenced the Development of Luther’s Ideas from 1517 to 1520? 204
The meeting with the Augustinian order at Heidelberg, April 1518 206
The meeting with Cajetan at Augsburg, October 1518 207
Negotiations between Miltitz and Frederick, December 1518-January 1519 208
The Leipzig Debates, June-July 1519 208
The Threat of Excommunication and the three Pamphlets, 1520 210
The threat of excommunication 210
The three pamphlets of 1520 210
Why did Luther’s ideas change so dramatically between 1517 and 1520? 212
Burning the papal bull 215
2a.3: The development of Lutheranism, 1521-46 216
Introduction 216
What Happened at the Diet of Worms? 218
Wartburg Castle, 1521-22 221
What was Luther’s Attitude to Extremism between 1522 and 1525? 222
Andrew Carlstadt and the Zwickau Prophets, 1521-22 222
The Knights' Revolt, 1522-23 223
The Peasants' Revolt, 1524-25 224
How did Lutheranism Develop in the 1520s? 228
The doctrine of the Real Presence 228
Translating the Bible, 1522-34 228
German Mass, 1526 231
The Catechisms, 1529 231
The spread of Lutheranism 232
Why did Luther’s Influence on the Reformation Decline? 234
Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) 234
The Augsburg Confession, 1530 236
John Bugenhagen (1485-1558) 236
The growing divergence between Lutheran and Catholic beliefs 237
The Philip of Hesse bigamy scandal of 1540 237
2a.4: The spread and survival of Lutheranism, 1521-55 240
Introduction 240
Did Charles V use the Wrong Tactics to Eradicate Lutheranism? 242
The failure of negotiations, 1521-41 243
How far were German Princes Responsible for the Spread and Survival of Lutheranism? 247
The importance of Frederick the Wise 247
The importance of the Protestant princes 248
How far did Conflicting Priorities Hamper Charles' Ability to Tackle Lutheranism? 251
Spain 251
France 251
The Ottoman Empire 252
Summary 254
The Schmalkaldic War, 1546-47 256
The failure to capitalise on victory, 1547-53 257
The Peace of Augsburg, 1555 259
How did the Papacy Respond to Lutheranism? 261
Paul III (1534-49) 262
Preparing for your exams 265
The Dutch Revolt, c1563-1609 284
Introduction 284
2b.1: Origins of the Dutch Revolt, c1563-67 286
Introduction 286
How Independent was the Habsburg Netherlands? 287
The 17 provinces 287
The extent of local autonomy 289
The traditional rights of the Burgundian grandees 290
How Significantly did Spanish Authority Affect the Netherlands by 1563? 291
Philip II's policy towards the Netherlands and lack of regard for tradition 292
The regency of Margaret of Parma 294
The influence of Granvelle 295
How Effectively did the Dutch Grandees Oppose Spanish Authority? 296
The alliance of Orange, Hoorn and Egmont 296
Resistance to the reform of the bishoprics 297
The removal of Granvelle 298
Margaret and the heresy laws 298
The Confederacy of Noblemen - the 'Compromise' 299
How far did Calvinism Impact on the Netherlands? 303
The Huguenot migration from France 303
Hedge preaching 304
The revolt of 1566 304
The restoration of order 306
The effects of Calvinism in the Netherlands 307
2b.2: Alva and Orange, 1567-73 310
Introduction 310
How Significant was Alva in Promoting Further Opposition? 311
Alva’s rule 311
The replacement of Margaret of Parma 311
The execution of Egmont and Hoorn 312
The Council of Troubles and the attacks on heresy 313
The Tenth Penny tax 314
Growing opposition to the tax 316
Why did Orange Fail in his First Attempt to Invade the Netherlands? 316
Orange's power and influence in the northern provinces 317
The invasions of 1568 317
The rebels’ victory at Heiligerlee 318
Disintegration of the rebel forces and Alva’s triumph 319
How Important were the Sea Beggars in Challenging Spanish Rule? 322
Louis of Nassau and the privateers 322
The closure of English ports to the Sea Beggars 323
The seizure of Brill and Flushing 324
General revolt in the province of Holland 325
Why was Orange able to Enjoy Greater Success by 1573? 327
The invasion of 1572 327
Orange’s control over Holland and Zeeland 329
Alva’s failure to reconquer the northern provinces 330
2b.3: Spain and the re-conquest, 1573-84 334
Introduction 334
Why was Requesens Unable to Secure a Spanish Victory? 335
Requesens' failure to defeat the northern provinces 335
The Spanish Fury of 1576 339
The Pacification of Ghent in 1576 340
The advance of Calvinism in the southern provinces 341
Why did Parma Enjoy more Success than Requesens? 342
Re-establishing Spanish rule in the south 343
The Union of Arras, 1579 343
Parma’s diplomacy, military tactics and strategy 344
The fall of Antwerp in 1584 346
How important was Foreign Intervention to the Prince of Orange’s Success? 347
Orange’s decision to seek foreign help and the invitation to the Duke of Anjou 347
The Duke’s unpopularity and withdrawal in 1583 350
How Successful were the Northern Provinces in becoming more Independent? 351
The Union of Utrecht, 1579 351
The Act of Abjuration, 1581, and the establishment of the Republic of the United Provinces 352
The declining influence of the Prince of Orange 354
The assassination of the Prince of Orange, 1584 354
2b.4: Securing the independence of the United Provinces, 1584-1609 358
Introduction 358
Why was Maurice of Nassau so important to the United Provinces? 359
Nassau’s military reforms and changes in strategy and tactics 359
Siege warfare against fortresses and border towns 361
The victories at Turnhout and Nieuwpoort 362
Maurice as stadtholder 364
Why did the Spanish Fail to Conquer the United Provinces? 365
Support for the United Provinces by Elizabeth I of England 365
The Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585 366
The diversion of Parma’s troops to support the Spanish Armada in 1588 367
Intervention in France, 1589 369
How did the United Provinces Enhance their Power? 372
Oldenbarnevelt’s reforms 372
The Dutch East India Company and the development of overseas trade 373
The growing divergence of north and south 374
Oldenbarnevelt’s success in curbing Calvinist excesses 376
Why did Spain’s Influence in the Netherlands Decline? 377
Spain’s inability to pay its troops 377
The armistice of 1607 378
The Truce of Antwerp, 1609 379
Spain’s de facto recognition of the independence of the United Provinces 381
Preparing for your exams 383
Index 402
Acknowledgements 406