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Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Nationalism, dictatorship and democracy in 20th century Europe Student Book

Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Nationalism, dictatorship and democracy in 20th century Europe Student Book

Katie Hall | David Brown | Ben Williams


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Book Details


This book covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents 3
How to use this book 4
Introduction: AS/A Level History 6
Germany and West Germany, 1918-89 8
Introduction 8
1.1: Political and governmental change, 1918-89 10
Introduction 10
The Treaty of Versailles 11
Why did the Weimar Republic Surmount so many Political Challenges in the 1920S only to collapse by 1933? 12
The creation of a republic, 1918-19 12
The creation of the Weimar Constitution 13
Overcoming challenges to the constitution, 1918-29 15
Collapse of democracy, 1930-33 17
How did the Business of Government Operate within the Nazi Dictatorship in the years 1933–45? 20
Establishing a dictatorship, 1933-34 20
The nature of Nazi government, 1934-39 23
Government in wartime, 1939-45 25
How Far did the Leaders of the Federal Republic Of Germany create a Stable Political State in the years 1945-89? 26
Creation of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1945-49 26
Consolidation under Adenauer and Erhard, 1949-65 30
Maintaining political stability under Brandt, Schmidt and Kohl, 1965-89 32
1.2: Opposition, control and consent, 1918-89 36
Introduction 36
How Effectively did Opposition Express Itself in the years 1918-89? 37
The impact of the Treaty of Versailles on German politics 37
Political extremism and crises, 1918-33 39
Opposition and dissent in Nazi Germany, 1933-45 40
Political dissent and active challenge, 1949-89 43
How Successfully did Germany’s Governments Control the German people in the years 1918-89? 47
Attempts to control extremism, 1918-32 47
How did the Nazis use censorship and repression from 1933 to 1945? 48
The constitutional and legal responses to political extremism, 1949-89 51
To what Extent did Germany’s Governments Rule by Consent In the Years 1918-89? 53
The nature of support for the Weimar Constitution, 1918-32 53
Support for the Nazi regime and the use of propaganda, 1933-45 56
The de-Nazifi cation policies of the Western Allies, 1945-49 57
The nature of support for democracy in the FRG, 1949-89 59
1.3: Economic development and policies, 1918-89 62
Introduction 62
How Successfully did the Weimar Republic Respond to Economic Challenges in the Years 1918–32? 63
Economic crises and government response, 1918-23 63
Policies for recovery, 1924-28 65
What impact did the Great Depression have on the WeimarRepublic, 1929-32? 68
Changing living standards, 1918-32 69
How Far did the Nazis Control the Economy in the Years 1933-45? 72
How did the Nazis attempt economic recovery in the years 1933-36? 72
Creating a command economy, 1936-39 74
Changing living standards, 1933-39 76
What was the impact of war on Nazieconomic policies, 1939-45? 77
What Effect did the Creation of a ‘Social Market’ Economy have on the Federal Republic in the years 1945-89? 79
How far was economic recovery achieved in the years 1945-55? 79
The economic miracle, 1955-66 81
How did the Federal Republic survive the economic challenges in the years 1966-89? 83
Integration into the European economy,1949-89 84
Changing living standards, 1945-89 86
1.4: Aspects of life in Germany and West Germany, 1918-89 88
Introduction 88
To what extent did the role of women and attitudes towards them change and develop in germany in the years 1918-89? 90
Was there a change in the role and status of women in the years 1918-32? 90
The impact of Nazi rule on women’s lives, 1933-45 92
The role and status of women in the FRG 95
Why Were Educational and Cultural Developments Often Controversial In Germany in the Years 1918-89? 98
Education in the Weimar Republic 98
Cultural experimentation, 1918-32 99
Nazis education policies, 1933-45 100
Nazi cultural policies, 1933-45 102
Education in the FRG 103
Cultural and generational tensions in the FRG 104
How Far did Attitudes Towards Ethnic Minorities Affect their Status In Germany in the Years 1918-89? 105
The status of, and attitudes towards, ethnic minorities, 1918-32 106
Nazi racial policies 107
The status of, and attitudes towards, ethnic minorities in the FRG 111
1.5: How far was Hitler’s foreign policy responsible for the Second World War? 114
Introduction 114
Changing views of historians 114
Understanding Hitler 115
Evaluating interpretations of history 116
Interpretations of Hitler’s foreign policy and the Second World War 117
How Far did German History Influence Nazi Foreign Policy? 119
How did Aryan racial theory drive foreign policy? 119
Why the Third Reich? 119
The effect of the First World War on Nazi foreign policy 120
To what extent did Hitler shape nazi foreign policy? 122
What was the ideology behind Hitler’s foreign policy? 123
Did Hitler drive Nazi foreign policy? 124
Did Hitler always intend war? 127
Why did Germany Invade Poland in 1939? 128
Nazi relations with Poland up to 1936 129
How did relations change after 1936? 129
Was the invasion of Poland a step in a move to world war? 131
To what Extent did other Nations Contribute to the Outbreak of War? 133
How did international politics infl uence the move towards war? 133
The League of Nations 134
How did the attitudes of individual countries influence the move towards war? 136
What other influences affected the move towards war? 137
Preparing for your exams 139
The rise and fall of fascism in Italy, c1911-46 166
Spain, 1930-78: republicanism, Francoism and the re-establishment of democracy 284
Introduction 284
2b.1: Creation and destabilisation of the Second Republic, 1930-36 286
Introduction 286
How Significant were Political Events in Spain in the years 1930-31? 287
The impact of political events, 1930-31 287
The creation of the Second Republic 289
The key forces of conservatism 291
Political unrest 292
Economic and social problems 292
To what extent can the Period 1931-33 be Classed as ‘Years of Reform’ In Spain? 293
Provisional government reform of the army and the Church 294
Tackling agricultural problems 294
Reforms under Azaña 295
Responses from both left and right 296
Unrest and repression 296
What was the Significance of Events and Developments during the ‘Years of Reaction’, 1933-36? 297
The creation of CEDA 297
The impact of the November 1933 elections 298
Undoing the reforms of 1931-33 299
The Asturias rising and its consequences 301
The formation of the Popular Front 302
How Significant was the 1936 General Election in Relation to Events In Spain between February and July 1936? 303
The election of February 1936 303
Political instability and social unrest 304
The signifi cance of Sotelo’s assassination 306
The attempted military coup, 1936 306
2b.2: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 310
Introduction 310
What were the Key Factors in the Months July-August 1936 that led to the outbreak of War in Spain? 311
Nationalist and Republican leadership, support and relative military strength 311
The geographical division of Spain in 1936 313
The significance of the international response 314
The situation by the end of August 1936 315
What was the Nature and Impact of the Course of the War in Spain in the years 1936-39? 317
The main campaigns and the stages of the Nationalist advance 317
The impact of Republican political divisions 322
The impact of atrocities by both sides 323
The fall of Barcelona and Madrid in 1939 323
How Significant was the Impact of the Civil War on Ordinary Spanish Citizens? 324
The variety of experiences in the Republican zones 324
Life in the Nationalist zone 325
Attitudes towards women 326
The use of political terror 328
What Factors had the most Influence In Determining the Outcome of the War? 329
Republican weaknesses and Nationalist strengths 329
The role of Franco 329
The role of foreign intervention and the impact of non-intervention 330
2b.3: Establishing Franco’s dictatorship, 1938-56 334
Introduction 334
How Effectively did Franco Establish a ‘New State’? 335
Establishing control in the Nationalist zone, 1938 335
Initial policies 336
The influence of the Falange 336
Managing Nationalist rivalries 337
The establishment and survival of a fascist dictatorship under Franco 338
To what Extent did Franco’s Government Control the Spanish People after the Civil War? 339
The legacy of the civil war 339
Political terror and repression 340
Censorship and propaganda 341
The role of the Church 341
Cult of personality 343
Education policies 344
Attitudes towards women 344
How well did the Spanish Economy Perform in the years Following the Civil War? 345
Economic problems and the impact of the civil war 345
The development of corporatism 346
The implementation of autarky 347
Successes and failures 348
To what Extent did the Dictatorship and Spain’s International Relations Change in the Years 1939-56? 350
Maintaining neutrality, 1939-45 350
Creating international relations in the Cold War environment, 1945-56 353
2b.4: Dictatorship remodelled and the transition to democracy, 1956-78 358
Introduction 358
How Far-Reaching was Economic and Social Change in Spain in the years 1956-75? 359
Economic problems in the 1950s 359
The decline of the Falange and the rise of the technocrats in the late 1950s 360
The ‘economic miracle’, 1960-75 361
The impact and growth of tourism, 1960-75 362
Social developments and tensions 364
To What Extent did Political Developments affect Spain in the years 1956-75? 366
The reasons for, and nature of, political change, 1956-70 366
The changing influence of the Church 367
The reasons for, and nature of, increased opposition to Franco’s rule 368
The growth of regional nationalism 369
Government reaction, 1970-75 370
Developments in international relations 370
How Successfully was Succession Planning Managed for a Post-Franco Head of State? 374
The Law of Leadership Succession, 1947 374
The decision to return to monarchy, 1969 374
Reaction to the decision from reformers and conservatives 376
The role of Juan Carlos, 1969-74 376
The death of Franco, 1975 377
How Successfully did Spain make the Transition to Democracy and Establish a Democratic Constitution in 1978? 378
The role of Juan Carlos 378
Immediate steps towards democracy 379
Conservative obstacles 380
Agreeing a democratic constitution in 1978 381
Preparing for your exams 383
Index 402
Acknowledgements 406