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Tu Youyou And The Discovery Of Artemisinin: 2015 Nobel Laureate In Physiology Or Medicine

Tu Youyou And The Discovery Of Artemisinin: 2015 Nobel Laureate In Physiology Or Medicine

Rao Yi | Zhang Daqing | Li Runhong


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Book Details

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents vii
Authors ix
Preface The Deer Bleat “Youyou” While They Feed on Wild Hao xi
Chapter 1. Project 523 and Artemisinin 1
The Mandate for Project 523 2
The project origins 2
The meeting preparations 3
The mission unfolds 11
The Organisational Structure of Project 523 14
The initial years (1967–1971) 14
Mid-term change of leadership and participating organisations (1971–1981) 20
The conclusion of Project 523 24
Chapter 2. The Discovery of Artemisinin 29
Rediscovering the Anti-Malarial Properties of Artemisia Annua 30
The Extraction and Naming of the Effective Monomer of A. Annua 37
Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ATCM) 37
Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases and Shandong Academy of Chinese Medicine 39
Yunnan Institute of Materia Medica 40
The Structure of Artemisinin 41
Clinical Trials 45
The neutral component of A. annua ethyl ether extracts 45
A. annua (A. annua L.) crystal extracts 48
Collaboration in the Discovery of Artemisinin 57
Within work units 58
Between work units 59
Chapter 3. Scientific Research Collaboration during a Special Historical Period 63
Several Important Meetings 64
The first meeting at the beginning of the project 64
Further meetings as the project gathered momentum 64
The 1971 Guangzhou meeting — further strengthening project 523 66
The 1973 Shanghai meeting — consolidating and intensifying the research 68
The April 1975 Chengdu meeting — focusing on artemisinin research 69
The 1977 Nanning meeting — preparing for to unveil artemisinin 70
The 1978 Yangzhou meeting — appraisal of artemisinin 71
The 1981 Beijing meeting — the winding up of Project 523 71
Collaboration between Personnel and Work Units 73
Collaboration between specialist groups 73
Collaboration across different work units or specialisations 74
Chapter 4. Artemisinin’s History and Future 79
From the Past to the Present 80
The sources of artemisinin 80
Artemisia annua: the only natural source of artemisinin 80
The industrialisation of artemisinin production 81
The story behind the discovery of artemisinin 82
The birth of artemisinin from traditional Chinese medicine 82
(2) The catalyst for artemisinin: aiding Vietnam against America 83
National mobilisation in the discovery of artemisinin 85
Health Benefits of Artemisinin and Future Research 86
Anti-malarial effect of artemisinin 88
Chloroquine drug resistance 88
Artemisinin and chloroquine-resistant malaria 89
The anti-malarial effect of artemisinin’s peroxide bridge structure 90
Drug resistance in Plasmodium to artemisinin-based drugs 90
Artemisinin and weight loss 91
Anti-aging effect of artemisinin 92
Anti-inflammatory effect of artemisinin 95
Anti-cancer effect of artemisinin 96
Anti-bacterial effect of artemisinin 96
Chapter 5. The Nobel Prize and Beyond 101
The Revolution is not Yet Over 102
The significance of the Nobel Prize 102
The revolution is not yet over 105
The conflict between Chinese and Western medicine 107
Why was Tu Youyou selected for the Lasker Award? 109
Why was the Nobel Prize awarded to Tu Youyou alone and not her team? 112
Tu Youyou’s Nobel Prize and China’s failure to make nominations 114
How great is the impact of Tu Youyou’s winning of the Nobel Prize? 117
The Importance of Scientific Thinking 119
Chinese Medicine is a Treasure Chest 126
Artemisinin and Malaria 131
Malaria and mankind 131
The discovery and extraction of Artemisinin 133
Further verification by modern experimental science 135
Anti-malarial mechanisms 136
Integrated treatment methods for malaria yield the best results 138
Appendices 141
Appendix 1: Timeline of Project 523 (1964 to 1981) 142
Appendix 2: Milestones in Artemisinin Research (1967 to 2003) 158
Appendix 3: Artemisinin — Patents and Collaboration 163
The regret of failing to patent artemisinin 163
The difficulties of collaboration 165
Appendix 4: Organisations Named 173
Appendix 5: List of Plants 181
Appendix 6: Tu Youyou’s Nobel Lecture 7 Dec 2015 183
Discovery of Artemisinin 184
Discovery of Artemisinin at ICMM 184
Artemisinin Chemistry Studies 186
Stereo-Structure of Artemisinin 186
Artemisinin and Artemisinin Derivatives 187
Artemisinin and Artemisinin Derivatives 188
Artemisinin and Dihydroartemisinin New Drug Certificates 190
Worldwide Attention on Artemisinin 190
Commitment to the Clearly-Defined Goal Assures Success in Discovery 191
Knowledge is a Prologue in Discovery 192
Information Collating and Accurate Deciphering Are the Foundation for Success in Research 193
Literature Review Inspires an Idea Leading to Success 194
Persistence in the Face of Challenges 196
Collaborative Team Efforts Expedited Translation from Scientific Discovery to Effective Medicine 197
Malaria Remains a Severe Challenge to Global Public Health 199
The Severe Warning of Parasites Resistant to Artemisinin 201
Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment 202
Chinese Medicine, A Great Treasure 203
On the Stork Tower 204
Editor’s Epilogue 207