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Poverty and Social Deprivation in the Mediterranean

Poverty and Social Deprivation in the Mediterranean

Maria Petmesidou | Christos Papatheodoru


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Book Details


In the growth of regional identities worldwide, the Mediterranean Basin is emerging as an entity in its own right. This book, a unique collaboration among social scientists around the entire Mediterranean littoral, covers Southern Europe, Turkey, the Balkans, North Africa, and the Near East. Leading economists, sociologists and social policy experts document with new and up-to-date empirical material the changing profiles of poverty and social deprivation. The result is a thought-provoking comparison of the extent, severity and structural causes of poverty and social inequality, and the huge diversity of public responses to the challenges they pose.
"This collection of essays lucidly addresses major issues related to poverty in the Mediterranean area. Empirical measurements of poverty reduced to a meaningless ?one or two dollars of daily expenditure?, as suggested by the World Bank, are meant to escape the political economy analysis of the processes that generate the phenomenon. Eradicating poverty implies implementing a programme of social security for all citizens, whatever level of development is reached by the country, in accordance with the basic human rights approach cogently suggested in this book" Samir Amin, Director of Third World Forum, Dakar & Paris "This is a most welcome addition to the literature on poverty. It is not just another book but a different and innovative book. It offers a comparative analysis of poverty for a region -the Mediterranean- which is a microcosm of the global economy comprising a range of countries from the very poor to the rich, countries torn by war and genocide as well as havens of stability, with cultures offering a diverse mixture of family types and ethnic groups. The approach is hard headed and insists on taking the removal of poverty not just as an economic or social policy but as a human rights issue. It should interest students, researchers and policy makers across the world as it has lessons for everywhere and for everyone." Lord Meghnad Desai, London School of Economics, UK 'The volume has a number of key strengths. One of the most strong features is the level of information provided. It reflects rigorous scholarship with a wealth of empirical material and extensive use of footnotes. This is a very useful contribution to knowledge of the nature and extent of poverty and understanding of underlying structural causes. The book is an important source of information on particular countries. It should be of interest to a wide audience of students, academics, practitioners, policy makers and anyone with an interest in the advancement of human rights and the eradication of glaring inequalities.' David Storey, University of Worcester
Maria Petmesidou and Christos Papatheodorou are respectively professor and assistant professor of Social Policy at Democritus University of Thrace. 

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents vii
Tables and figures ix
Acknowledgements xiii
1 | Introduction: comparing poverty phenomena in the Mediterranean area 1
Maria Petmesidou and Christos Papatheodorou\r 1
The Mediterranean area as a unit of analysis 3
Aspects of social development and poverty in the major regions of the Mediterranean area 13
The structure of the volume 26
Notes 34
References 41
one | The southern EU member states, the \rBalkan transition countries and Turkey 45
2 | Poverty profiles and trends. How do southern European countries compare with each other? 47
Christos Papatheodorou and Maria Petmesidou\r 47
Imbalances of social protection in southern Europe and major policy innovations for combating poverty 48
Social transfer programmes in the 1990s and early 2000s 51
Inequality and poverty 55
Poverty profiles 67
Concluding remarks 83
Appendix A 87
Appendix B 87
Notes 89
References 92
3 | Poverty and poverty discourses in Italy in comparative perspective 95
Chiara Saraceno\r 95
Research and policy discourses in the European context 95
Poverty in Italy: trends and patterns 101
Poverty of policies and the inadequacy of the policy discourse 109
Concluding remarks 112
Notes 114
References 115
4 | Poverty and anti-poverty policies in Portugal: the experience of the Guaranteed Minimum Income 117
Jose Pereirinha\r 117
Poverty and social exclusion: the policy relevance 117
The issue of measurement: poverty, deprivation, exclusion 123
Poverty in Portugal 128
The Portuguese Guaranteed Minimum Income 131
Concluding remarks 137
Notes 138
References 139
5 | Absolute poverty of illegal immigrants in Spain: a growing problem 142
Ubaldo Martinez Veiga 142
Methodology 142
Illegal immigrants in Spain 144
Hunger and absolute poverty 149
Absolute or relative poverty? 153
Spells of poverty and working conditions 156
Concluding remarks 160
Notes 162
References 163
6 | Poverty reduction strategies and well-being in Albania and Former Yugoslavia 166
Gerry Redmond\r 166
Background 167
Poverty Reduction Strategies 172
Poverty analysis and policy solutions in Poverty Reduction Strategies 175
Public participation and the ‘Washington Consensus’ 180
Conclusion 182
Notes 182
References 184
7 | The poor, excluded and transition losers in the south-eastern European transition economies 188
Ivo Bicanic and Vojmir Francevic\r 188
Transformation-generated poverty and inequality 189
Transformation-generated inequality and poverty in the region 191
Subjective poverty and expectations 200
Two critical policy implications 208
Conclusion 212
Notes 214
References 214
8 | Dynamics of poverty in Turkey: gender, rural/urban poverty, social networks and reciprocal survival strategies 218
Sibel Kalaycioglu\r 218
A conceptual framework for understanding poverty in Turkey 219
A brief history of the welfare system and poverty alleviation 230
A model of coping strategies by family/kinship groups 235
Conclusion 240
Appendix: social assistance schemes in Turkey 243
Notes 244
References 245
two | The Middle East and North Africa\r 249
9 | Poverty in Israel: taking a multi-dimensional approach 251
Jacques Silber and Michael Sorin\r 251
A brief review of poverty studies in Israel 251
The ‘fuzzy set’ approach to poverty analysis 256
An illustration based on Israeli data 260
The determinants of uni- and multi-dimensional poverty 263
Conclusions 268
Appendix A: the theory of fuzzy sets and its applications to multidimensional poverty measurement 270
Appendix B: additional tables 275
Notes 279
References 279
10 | The making of poverty in Palestine 282
Jamil Hilal 282
Mapping Palestinian poverty 285
Profiling the poor 291
Confronting impoverishment 299
Concluding remarks 304
Notes 305
References 306
11 | Social stratification obstacles to reducingin equality and alleviating poverty: the case of Lebanon 308
Sylvia Haladjian-Henriksen\r 308
Socio-economic developments and poverty in the last decade 308
Views on poverty and poverty alleviation 312
Social obstacles to fighting poverty 314
Conclusion 316
Notes 317
References 318
12 | Understanding recent trends in poverty and inequality in the Maghreb (with an emphasis on Morocco) 320
Mina Baliamoune-Loutz\r 320
The scale and context of the problem 320
Overview of the existing data and literature on poverty, inequality and reforms in Morocco 322
The multi-dimensions of poverty and inequality in Morocco 325
Identifying the causes of poverty in Morocco and the role of policies and reforms 335
Conclusion 342
Appendix A 344
Appendix B: Morocco – policy recommendations 346
Notes 347
References 347
13 | Poverty evaluation in Algeria: a logit-probit model applied to a multi-dimensional field survey in the region of Tlemcen 350
Abderrezak Benhabib, Tahar Ziani and Samir Baha-Eddine Maliki\r 350
The structural adjustment programme and social protectionpolicies 351
Safety-net policies, the Participatory Community Service Scheme and governance 359
The study in the Tlemcen region 363
Conclusion 370
Notes 371
References 371
14 | Concluding commentary: poverty in the Mediterranean region – applying a human rights strategy 374
Peter Townsend\r 374
Establishing an international baseline 375
Variations in the scale of poverty 377
Where poverty is most severe: the case of Egypt 379
Where poverty is most severe: the case of Palestine 381
Mediterranean policies to restrict poverty: the case of Israel 382
Lessons for the resolution of Mediterranean poverty 383
Conclusion – creative use of the human rights framework 393
References 396
About the contributors 399
Index 405