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Shadrack W. Nasong'o | Godwin R. Murunga


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The path towards democracy in Kenya has been long and often tortuous. Though it has been trumpeted as a goal for decades, democratic government has never been fully realised, largely as a result of the authoritarian excesses of the Kenyatta, Moi and Kibaki regimes. This uniquely comprehensive study of Kenya's political trajectory shows how the struggle for democracy has been waged in civil society, through opposition parties, and amongst traditionally marginalised groups like women and the young. It also considers the remaining impediments to democratisation, in the form of a powerful police force and damaging structural adjustment policies. Thus, the authors argue, democratisation in Kenya is a laborious and non-linear process. Kenyans' recent electoral successes, the book concludes, have empowered them and reinvigorated the prospects for democracy, heralding a more autonomous and peaceful twenty-first century.
'Riveting, compelling, engaging and inspiring. Not only is Kenya: The Struggle for Democracy a book of first-rate scholarship, it is an informative and readable treatise on the everyday expressions of Kenyan citizens‘ intense passions for openness, justice and responsible governance. Murunga, Nasong‘o and their contributors lay bear the plethora of shenanigans the Kenyan state, its lenders and its clients have used over time to ensure the monopolization of power by the few.' Lisa Aubrey, Ohio University 'A very refreshing, rigorous, informative, and multidisciplinary analysis of Kenya‘s transition to democratic governance. Kenya: The Struggle for Democracy not only identifies the reasons behind Kenya‘s failure to institutionalize democracy, but it also provides possible solutions.' John Mukum Mbaku, Weber State University ‘A moving and comprehensive analysis of institutions and actors that have shaped Kenya’s future … For Africanists, this is compulsory reading which requires a response.’ Winnie Mitullah, University of Nairobi 'The collective wisdom on Kenyan tribal matters represented in this book is difficult to doubt...the authors' preconceptions about Kenyan governance are noble...the book contains valuable material for understanding Kenyan tribal politics.' Jonathan Stevenson, Survival
Godwin R Murunga is a lecturer in history at Kenyatta University, Nairobi. Shadrack W. Nasong'o is currently Assistant Professor of International Studies, Rhodes College, Memphis.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
About this series i
Titles in the series i
About this book iii
Table of contents vii
Tables and Figures ix
Acknowledgements x
Abbreviations xii
Preface xvi
PART I Introduction 1
1 Prospects for Democracy in Kenya 3
Introduction 3
Theoretical and Conceptual Considerations 3
Prospects for Democracy in Kenya 9
References\r 15
PART II Civil Society and the Politics of Opposition 17
2 Negotiating New Rules of the Game: Social Movements, Civil Society and the Kenyan Transition 19
Introduction 19
Sketching the Conceptual Cornerstones 20
Kenyan Civil Society: Historical Overview 25
Civil Society and the Kenyan Transition 37
Limitations of the Civil Society Promise 48
Conclusion 52
Notes 53
References\r 54
3 Religious Movements and Democratisation in Kenya: Between the Sacred and the Profane 58
Introduction 58
Conceptualising Key Terms 60
Emergence of Religious Movements in Kenya 63
Origin and Growth of Mungiki 67
The Role of Mungiki in Transition Politics 75
Conclusion 84
Notes 86
References\r 86
4 The Contemporary Opposition in Kenya: Between Internal Traits and State Manipulation 90
Introduction 90
Political Parties: A Conceptual Framework 91
Opposition Politics Before 1992 96
The Return to Competitive Party Politics 98
Alliance Building, Opposition Parties and Parliament 117
Conclusion 121
References\r 124
PART III Major Constituencies in the Democratisation Process 127
5 Leaders of Tomorrow? The Youth and Democratisation in Kenya 129
Introduction 129
A Cultural Foundation 130
The Makings of a Kenyan Political Tradition 141
Post-Colonial Generational Politics 146
A New Era, A New Focus? The LHG, LG and UG Struggles 155
Conclusion 159
Notes 160
References\r 162
6 Women in Kenya’s Politics of Transition and Democratisation 164
Introduction 164
Theoretical and Conceptual Issues 165
Women and Kenyan Transition Politics 171
Women and the Transition of the 1990s 183
Challenges and Constraints 188
Conclusion 191
References\r 192
7 Intellectuals and the Democratisation Process in Kenya 197
Introduction 197
The Dilemma of Defining Intellectuals 198
Typologies of Intellectuals 201
Kenya’s Intellectuals in Action 210
Intellectuals and Kenya’s Second Liberation 217
Conclusion 224
References\r 225
8 The Role of the Police in Kenya’s Democratisation Process 227
Introduction 227
Democracy, The State and the Police Institution 227
Colonial Origins of Kenya Police’s Modus Operandi 229
Law Enforcement and Political Dissent under Kenyatta 233
Moi and the Remaking of a Police State 239
The Crisis of Authoritarian Governance 246
Judicial and Prison System Complicity in Police Repression 251
Conclusion 257
Notes 258
References\r 259
PART IV Donors and the Politics of Structural Adjustment 261
9 Governance and the Politics of Structural Adjustment in Kenya 263
Introduction 263
The Ruse of a Model Economy under Kenyatta 266
Stagnation under Moi, 1978–88 271
Donor Aid and Political Authoritarianism 276
Conclusion 295
Notes 296
References\r 297
10 From Demiurge to Midwife: Changing Donor Roles in Kenya’s Democratisation Process 301
Introduction 301
Analysing Democracy Promotion 303
Single-Party Rule under Moi 304
The Return to Multipartyism 307
Electoral Authoritarianism 313
Donor Role: An Evaluation 323
Conclusion 324
Notes 326
References\r 327
About the Contributors 331
Index 333