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A Future for the Excluded

A Future for the Excluded

Raff Carmen | Miguel Sobrado


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Book Details


Clodomir Santos de Morais is to organizational and entrepreneurial literacy what his Brazilian confrere, Paulo Freire, is to ordinary literacy. This book introduces for the first time in English the experiences of grassroots development workers who have applied his ideas of the Organization Workshop (OW) and capacitation in highly diverse social settings. One of the most exciting aspects of de Morais's methods of working with the most marginalized sectors of society is their relevance not just to Third World countries, but also to Eastern Europe's economies in transition and the most deprived areas of the industrialized countries. This highly distinctive grassroots development approach to empowering socially excluded strata in economic and organizational terms holds out the prospect of becoming a very important factor in the struggle against poverty.
Raff Carmen currently coordinates the Masters and post-graduate research programmes in Adult Education, Adult Literacy and Rural Social/Community Development at the University of Manchester.
'The kind of book that comes only once in a while. Important for progressive educators, community organizers, and all those concerned with non-formal education.' Carlos Alberto Torres, Latin American Center, UCLA 'In the link de Morais establishes between autonomy, self-organization, and creative enterprise building may well lie feasible guidelines for the much needed task of thinking beyond development and the neoliberal economy.' Arturo Escobar, author of 'Encountering Development' 'At last a book that offers the English-speaking world a window into a startling body of theory and practice on building democratic forms of economic organization.' Simon Zadek, New Economics Foundation, London 'One of the few books to cross the boundary between social and organizational change, and a 'must' for all organization and social development practitioners.' Bill Cooke, Institute for Development Policy and Management, Manchester University. 'The success of these worker-owned enterprises makes this book essential reading for anyone concerned with issues of poverty and development.' Frank Youngman, author of 'The Political Economy of Adult Education and Development'

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents v
Preface x
Notes xiii
Preliminary Note on Translating ‘Latino’ Terms into English xv
The Concept and Practice of ‘Capacitation’ (and ‘Discapacitation’) xv
‘Situated Learning’ and ‘Capacitation’ xvii
Formación/formação xviii
Assistencialismo/clientelismo/sociolismo xviii
References xix
Notes on the Contributors xx
Abbreviations xxiii
Part I: Context and History 1
1: Those Who Don’t Eat and Those Who Don’t Sleep 2
The Demise of the Welfare State 4
A Sound Market Built on Sound Sociological Foundations 7
‘Where There is no Workplace’, and Hence no Future 10
Conclusion 12
Note 12
References 12
2: Clodomir Santos de Morais: The Origins of the Large-scale Capacitation Theory and Method 14
Introduction 14
Years of Exile and of Further Development of the Method 15
The Theory 16
The Organization Workshop Method 17
Why a Method That Has Shown Such Excellent Results Has Not Spread More Widely 21
Is It Possible to Overcome the Allergy? 23
Notes 24
Part II: Theoretical Perspectives 25
3: The Large Group Capacitation Method and Social Participation: Theoretical Considerations 26
Large Group Capacitation 26
Guiding Principles for the Analysis of the Concept of Organiza-tional Consciousness 27
The Need to Realign Workers’ Ideological Behaviour 31
Social Engineering 34
The Methodological Phases 35
Notes 38
4: From Paulo Freire to Clodomir Santos de Morais: from Critical to Organizational Consciousness 39
A Final Treasured Moment with Paulo Freire, March 1997 39
Extension and Extensionism 40
Extension, Popular Education and Capacitation 46
Objective Activity 47
Theory-building, Research and Evaluation 48
Notes 48
Part III: The Organization Workshop in Practice 51
The OW in Central and South America 51
5: From Navvies to Entrepreneurs: The OW in Costa Rica 52
Conclusion 58
Note 58
6: Sacked Agricultural Workers Take on the Multinationals in Honduras 60
Short Overview of Development in Honduras in the 1970s 60
Campesino Organizations and Context of the Reforms 60
The Workshop 61
The OW and the Private Sector 62
Strengthening of Group Management 63
The ‘Centre’ Workshops 64
An Example: The Agro-industrial Complex of Guaymas 65
Limitations and Problems 66
Lessons to be Drawn 67
Notes 68
7: The Mexican Experience 70
The First Field Workshops in the Lacandona Forest (Chiapas) 70
The Field OW of Tampaón San Luís Potosí 71
The Tampaón OW 73
Twenty Years on: Some Preliminary Evaluations 75
Interlude: Official Recognition by the Mexican Authorities 77
The Enterprise Workshop and Entrepreneurial Management Workshop (EMW) in Huatusco, Vera Cruz 78
Conclusion 79
Note 80
8: The OW in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru 81
The Agrarian Reform in Panama 81
Colombia 81
Venezuela 82
Peru 84
Note 87
9: Three Decades of Work with OWs in Latin America 88
Note 90
The OW in Africa 91
10: ‘Doing Enterprises’ in Wartime and Post-war Mozambique 92
First-wave Involvement in Mozambique 92
The CRS invites IATTERMUND 93
The Polana Canizo OW (1991) 94
The Caritas Mozambique ‘Course’ OW for TDEs and the First PROGEI/SIPGEI 95
Second-wave Involvement: Matzinho, Munguine, Boroma and Nhatambala 96
The Matzinho Village Enterprise in War-torn Mozambique 96
The Munguine OW in Post-war Mozambique (January 1995) 99
Boroma and Nhatambala (October 1995) 102
The Boroma OW 102
The Nhatambala OW 105
Conclusion 107
Notes 107
11: In Angola, Guinea Bissau and São Tomé e Principe 109
Angola: An Abundance of Jobs But No One to Fill Them 109
The OW Called in by the Angolan Trade Union Movement 111
Guinea Bissau and São Tomé e Principe: The ‘Course’ OWs in Guinea Bissau 112
Unemployment in Bissau: 1989 onwards 113
Back to Brazil 113
Note 114
12: Hard Learning in Zimbabwe (SADET) and in Post-civil War Mozambique 115
‘Why Zimbabwe, of All Places?’ 115
The First OWs in Southern Africa 117
Hard Learning 118
The Adaptation Process 120
The Mass Capacitation Operation in Hurungwe District, Mashonaland West, Zimbabwe 124
Other Experiences 126
Ventures in Mozambique 127
Results 129
Notes 130
13: Organization Development (OD) and the Moraisean OW in South Africa and Botswana 131
The Learning Organization 132
Changes in the Enterprise of the Participants 132
Changes in the Hosting NGO 134
Changes in the Participants’ Enterprises of Origin 136
An Approach to OD? 136
Defining Characteristics 137
A Note on the Human Relations Movement (HRM) 140
Giving Priority to Learning 141
Concluding Remarks 142
Notes 142
The OW in Europe and Other Industrial Countries 145
14: The Potential of the OW in the Former Soviet Bloc Countries and in Economies in Crisis 146
The Workers’ Councils in Poland and the Path Blocked in Russia 146
Natural Disasters 148
Hurricane Mitch in Central America: From ‘Aid’ to Autonomy 149
Note 151
Reference 151
15: Post-Salazar Portugal: The First European SIPGEI 152
The End of the Salazar Dictatorship and the Independence of the Portuguese Colonies 152
The Large Scale Capacitation Project: International Aid 153
The Ultimate Destination of the Newly Formed Cadres 154
State Power versus Civil Society: Two Opposing Forces? 156
Further Developments of the INSCOOP Initiative 157
Some Examples of the Influence of the OW in Portugal 159
Subsequent Engagements of the Overseas Participants in the Portuguese OWs 160
Notes 160
16: The Crisis of Work and the Welfare Reform Plans in Western Countries 162
‘Grim and Getting Grimmer’ 162
Experiential and Experimental Workshops 164
The OD ‘Experiential’ Learning Workshops 165
The ‘Experimental’ OWs 166
Welfare Reforms and Welfare-to-Work 167
Conclusion 170
Notes 171
References 171
Part IV: From Local OWs to National Employment-generation Systems 173
17: The Brazilian PROGEI-SIPGEIs of the 1980s and 1990s 174
Background 174
The UNB, IATTERMUND, Jânio Quadros and the MST 175
Mayors Erundina and Maluf 176
The PROGEIs of Paraíba, Cuiabá and Alagoas 177
The PROGEIs of Paulo Afonso, Vitória and Rondônia 178
The Amazonian PRONAGER 185
‘More Than a Job: A Future’ 186
Notes 187
18: The PAE and the Self-employment Project in Brazil 188
Note 192
19: The OW and Civil Society in Brazil 193
Introduction 193
Membership Associations of the Excluded in Late-1980s Brazil 194
The OW as an Unfolding Form of Associationism and Cooperativism in Brazil 196
Types of OW 198
Conclusion 201
20: The OW’s Potential: Concluding Observations 204
The Social Composition of the Groups and Large-scale Social Participation Projects 205
The Concepts of ‘Capacitation’ and ‘Discapacitation’ 208
Capacitation and Discapacitation: Two Faces of the Same Coin 212
Organizational and Management Capacitation as a Civil Society Enabler 213
The PROGEI and SIPGEI as Mechanisms of Social Auditing and of State Reform 214
Note 217
Reference 217
Selective Bibliography of Works by and on Clodomir Santos de Morais 218
Index 223