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Region-Building in Southern Africa

Region-Building in Southern Africa

Chris Saunders | Gwinyayi Albert Dzinesa | Dawn Nagar


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How successful have Southern African states been in dealing with the major issues that have faced the region in recent years? What could be done to produce more cohesive and effective region-building in Southern Africa? In this original and wide-ranging volume, which draws on an interdisciplinary team of mainly African and African-based specialists, the key political, socio-economic, and security challenges facing Southern Africa today are addressed. These include the various issues confronting the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and its institutions; such as HIV/AIDS, migration and xenophobia, land-grabbing and climate change; and the role of the main external actors involved with the region, including the United Nations, the European Union, the United States, and China. The book also looks at the Southern African Customs Union and Southern African Development Finance Institutions, including the Development Bank of Southern Africa and Industrial Development Corporation, and issues of gender and peacebuilding. In doing so, the book goes to the heart of analyzing the effectiveness of SADC and other regional organisation, suggesting how region-building in Southern Africa may be compared with similar attempts elsewhere in Africa and other parts of the world.
Gwinyayi Dzinesa is Senior Researcher at the Centre for Conflict Resolution in Cape Town. Chris Saunders is Emeritus Professor in Historical Studies at the University of Cape Town, and a research associate at the Centre for Conflict Resolution Dawn Nagar is a researcher at the Centre for Conflict Resolution in Cape Town.
'This is likely to be one of the most important books of this decade on region building in Southern Africa. The volume contains chapters by a highly esteemed group of scholars and policy makers. It is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand region building in Africa in general and Southern Africa in particular. I highly recommend it for use in the classroom and by policy makers and civil society.' Professor Margaret C. Lee, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA 'The book provides a systematic overview of southern Africa as a region, discussing the diverse dynamics that energise the sub-continent and which both contribute to and undermine coherent integration and development. Comprehensive and well-written, the contributions shed a timely light on a part of Africa that is said to be currently 'emerging'. Readers of this volume will be equipped to be able to make their own judgements on such an assertion'. Professor Ian Taylor, School of International Relations, University of St. Andrews 'While this is not the first book that tries to get a better understanding of the processes, actors and institutions involved in the formation of a functional region, this volume is unique in several ways. One is that it takes a broadly Pan-African approach to the analysis. The second is that it draws together reputable analysts with diverse expertise on regional integration. The third is that it is a product of a high-level policy seminar and thus offers fresher perspectives on topical issues of today. Lastly, it provides the basis for further and deeper research of key dynamics that could propel regional integration forward. This is a useful addition to the literature on regional integration in southern Africa.' Dr Siphamandla Zondi, Director of the Africa and Southern Africa Programme, The Institute for Global Dialogue, South Africa 'There has been an urgent need for an up-to-date volume on Southern Africa as a region, and for the expansive range of the region's concerns to be fully and sympathetically addressed. This book will be indispensable to all who wish to understand Southern Africa and its regional dynamics.' Stephen Chan, School of Oriental & African Studies, London 'This very timely and well-researched volume enriches the existing body of literature on regionalism in southern Africa with commendable no-nonsense clarity. It is carefully nuanced, engages the debate at more than one register, and ought to become a primer on this subject to academicians and practioners alike.' Professor Andre du Pisani, The University of Namibia 'There is always value in new analysis and evaluation of national, regional and global endeavours, to enhance the quality of life of families, communities and nations in the global village. This book adds to an already strong resource base for policy makers, planners, business leaders and scholars, seeking deeper and closer understanding of Southern Africa. It also points to the imperatives and critical paths to an effective Southern African Community. It's a smooth and easy read - enjoy!' Simba Makoni, former Finance Minister, South Africa

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
About the editors i
Illustrations vii
Tables vii
4.1 Classification of regime types in SADC 79
7.1 SAPP electricity demand and supply, 2009 136
8.1 SACU economic indicators, 2007/08 150
8.2 SACU common revenue pool, 2005/06–2009/10 156
10.1 Contributions to reduction in child malnutrition, 1970–95 185
13.1 Matrix of possible climate change/security interactions over time 234
13.2 Prioritization matrix for climate change constraints at SADC andmember state levels 240
Figures vii
7.1 SAPP electricity contribution, 2009 134
8.1 Regional institutions in southern Africa 151
10.1 SADC total cereal and maize production, 1990–2008 183
Map vii
8.1 SACU member states 149
Boxes vii
8.1 SACU institutions 158
13.1 Major likely GEC impacts in Africa 232
Abbreviations and acronyms viii
Acknowledgements xi
Foreword xii
Introduction 1
Regionalism: a conceptual and empirical assessment 2
Regional integration: the case of southern Africa 4
SADC’s developmental framework 6
Politics, security and governance 8
International links and key trade partners 10
Structure of the book 12
Problems and challenges 16
Notes 18
PART ONE Historical legacy 23
1  |  The SADCC and its approaches to African regionalism 25
Background to SADCC and FLS 25
Formation of SADCC 27
SADCC’s achievements and shortcomings 30
Beyond SADCC: legacies for SADC 33
Conclusion 36
Notes 36
2  |  The SADC: between cooperation and development – an insider perspective 39
Earlier attempts at regional economic integration 40
Political cooperation and development of a shared value system 42
Developmental integration 47
Functional cooperation 47
Trade and investment 49
Management of regional integration 52
Conclusion 57
Notes 58
PART TWO Governance and military \rsecurity 61
3  |  The Southern African Development Community’s decision-making architecture 63
Historical background 63
Policy agenda 64
Political, peace and security priorities 65
Socio-economic development and integration priorities 66
SADC’s decision-making architecture 67
Conclusion 75
Notes 76
4  |  Elections and conflict management 78
Context 78
Table 4.1 Classification of regime types in SADC 79
The problematic nexus between elections and conflict: selected cases 80
Evolution of a normative framework for credible, peaceful and transparent elections in southern Africa 85
The role of civil society 88
Conclusion 89
Notes 90
5  |  Peacekeeping: from the United Nations to the SADC Stand-by Force 92
UN peacekeeping missions 92
Towards a regional military force 95
The AU and the continental drive for an African army 97
The SADCSF: issues of capacity, operability and usage 99
Conclusion 102
Notes 103
6  |  Gender and peace-building 107
An evolving gender architecture 110
SADC’s gender instruments 111
Technical progress and obstacles in SADC 112
Beyond policies: dealing with ‘gender fatigue’? 115
The importance of grassroots women’s groups in the implementation of SADC’s Gender Protocol 118
Conclusion 120
Notes 121
PART THREE Economic integration 129
7  |  Regional economic integration 131
Spatial Development Initiatives: the Southern African Power Pool 132
Figure 7.1 SAPP electricity contribution, 2009 134
Table 7.1 SAPP electricity demand and supply (MW), 2009 136
SADC free trade area 138
SADC’s Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan 142
Conclusion 143
Notes 144
8  |  The Southern African Customs Union: promoting stability through dependence? 148
The geopolitical imperative 148
Map 8.1 SACU member states 149
Table 8.1 SACU economic indicators, 2007/08 150
Figure 8.1 Regional institutions in southern Africa 151
SACU trade and inequality 152
Redistribution? 153
Table 8.2 SACU common revenue pool, 2005/06–2009/10 156
Democratization and decision-making 156
Box 8.1 SACU institutions 158
Conclusion 161
Notes 161
9  |  South Africa’s development finance institutions 164
South Africa’s post-apartheid Africa policy 165
The Industrial Development Corporation 167
The role of the IDC in Mozambique 169
The Development Bank of Southern Africa 171
The DBSA in the SADC region 171
Conclusion 176
Notes 176
PART FOUR \rHuman security 179
10  | Food insecurity 181
Theoretical constructs: freedom from hunger 181
Regional food security and root causes 183
Figure 10.1 SADC total cereal and maize production (thousand tonnes), 1990–2008 183
Underlying causes of regional food insecurity 184
Table 10.1 Contributions to reduction in child malnutrition, 1970–95 185
SADC’s regional strategic framework for addressing food insecurity 188
The Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan 189
FAFS and RISDP: the linkages 189
The Malawi ‘success story’ 190
Land reform and ‘land grabbing’: threat or opportunity? 191
Conclusion 192
Notes 193
11  |   HIV/AIDS and human security 198
Human security in southern Africa: a conceptual brief 199
Impact of HIV/AIDS on human security in southern Africa 199
SADC policy and institutional framework for HIV/AIDS 202
HIV/AIDS, the military and human security 207
Civil society, HIV/AIDS and human security in southern Africa 208
Conclusion 210
Notes 211
12  |  Migration and xenophobia 215
Migration and the making of difference in southern Africa 216
Migration, xenophobia and ethnicity 219
Free market policies and xenophobia 222
Conclusion 225
Notes 226
13  |  Climate change challenges 230
The growing realities of climate change 230
Box 13.1 Major likely GEC impacts in Africa 232
GEC, human security and human rights 233
Table 13.1 Matrix of possible climate change/security interactions over time 234
Southern African dimensions 236
Southern African regional institutions’ engagement with GEC 237
SADC 237
Table 13.2 Prioritization matrix for climate change constraints at SADC and member state levels 240
Conclusion 243
Acknowledgements 246
Notes 246
PART FIVE \rExternal actors 249
14  | The European Union 251
The EU’s post-independence agreements with Africa 252
The EU’s development policies: a hindrance to real development 253
The geopolitical challenges of the late twentieth century 254
South Africa and the European Commission 256
Lack of coherence in SADC 259
Conclusion 261
Notes 262
15  |  The United States 264
The pursuit of US Cold War interests in southern Africa 265
Post-Cold War US interests in southern Africa 266
The Clinton years 268
The George W. Bush years 269
Obama and southern Africa 272
Reviving the SADC–US Forum and promoting regional cooperation 276
Conclusion 277
Notes 278
16  |  China 281
Historical dimensions 283
Post-apartheid political relations 286
Assessing China’s economic role 288
Conclusion 293
Notes 294
Conclusion 297
Notes 304
About the contributors 307
Bibliography 310
Index 338
About Zed Books 352