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Conflict and Development

Conflict and Development

Eleanor O' Gorman


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During the 1990s the drive of liberal peace efforts in the form of humanitarian intervention transformed the ways in which traditional development assistance operated in war and post-war situations. From Somalia and Rwanda to Bosnia and Sri Lanka, conflict, security and development became more intertwined as more integrated programmes and interventions were advocated by the international community. Conflict and Development, whilst serving as an in-depth introduction to key themes and context, questions the extent to which international aid has over-reached in seeking to engage more centrally in addressing the causes and consequences of violent conflict. Using this framework, the author traces the evolution of the conflict and development agenda and explores the politics of aid and policymaking in relation to international conflict. By taking a combined approach of theory, policy and practice this vital new book explores and comprehensively explains the impact of conflict on development and vice-versa through the series of concise thematic chapters.
Eleanor O' Gorman works as an independent strategist and researcher on international development, conflict and security issues. She advises, among others, the UN, the UK Government, the Government of Ireland, the European Commission, and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Eleanor has extensive field experience in conflict-affected countries including the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sri Lanka and Timor Leste. Eleanor is currently Senior Associate at the Gender Studies Centre and Research Associate at the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Cambridge.
'"Conflict and Development" provides a comprehensive overview of the ideas and debates surrounding the intimate connection between development and security. O' Gorman's deft analysis moves from greed, grievance and poverty, through gender to embrace the wider issues of peacebuilding and statebuilding. For a single volume that brings order to this crowded terrain, this cannot be beaten.' Mark Duffield, Director, Global Insecurities Centre 'Eleanor O' Gorman's book provides us with an invaluable guide to the rapidly changing and highly contested landscape of conflict and development. Getting behind the headlines, she helps us navigate this difficult terrain. She leaves us more confident in our understanding of the history of the intertwining of fragility, conflict and development, and more astute in anticipating the challenges that will lie ahead.' Joanna Macrae, author of Aiding Recovery? The Crisis of Aid in Chronic Political Emergencies

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
About the series ii
About the author ii
Acknowledgements vi
Acronyms viii
1 | International Conflict and Development in the Twenty-First Century: an Overview 1
Introduction 2
New wars and liberal peace 3
Disciplinary debates: academic roots of conflict and development 8
Conflict and development: facts and figures 9
Why development organisations became interested in war and peace 13
2 | Greed, Grievance and Poverty: the Politics of Analysing Conflict 20
Explaining conflict: three key debates 21
Sociobiology 22
Structural violence 23
Cultural inherency 25
Grievance and relative deprivation 27
Greed and economic essentialism 31
Conflict Diamonds 34
The relationship between poverty and violent conflict 37
How do global league tables rank peace, poverty and conflict? 40
3 | Using Conflict Analysis Frameworks 44
Conflict analysis frameworks 45
Figure 1 Triad based on Mitchell’s ‘basic conflict structure’ 46
Conflict analysis in development planning 49
Resources for conflict analysis 51
Table 1 Conflict analysis matrix 54
The presence and absence of politics in PCIA 58
Programme level analysis: youth employment programmes in Timor-Leste 59
4 | The Aid Policies and Architecture of International Conflict and Development 66
People, guns and soldiers: whose security and violence? 67
Humanitarian intervention 69
Conflict prevention 72
Peacebuilding 73
Fragile states, stability and statebuilding 77
Conflict and development programmes 80
The shift from small arms and light weapons to armed violence reduction 82
New agendas of conflict, security and development: climate change, insecurity and conflict 84
Climate change, natural resources and conflict 85
Organisational developments 86
5 | Women, Peace and Security: the Gendering of International Conflict and Development 92
Understanding gender as role-playing 95
Moving from gender roles to gender transformations 98
Women, peace and security: an international policy framework 103
2000–2010: A decade of women, peace and security at the UN 104
Gender assumptions and DDR programming in Liberia 108
Contemporary wars and international interventions 109
Conclusion 113
6 | Fragile States and the Limits of Peacebuilding and Statebuilding 115
Current dilemmas of development and conflict 116
Independence in Timor-Leste 122
Rethinking state failure in Somalia 126
Conclusion 133
Notes 137
Chapter 1 137
Chapter 2 140
Chapter 3 141
Chapter 4 142
Chapter 5 144
Chapter 6 145
Bibliography 147
Index 171