## Edexcel AS/A level Physics Student Book 1

(2016)

### Abstract

Edexcel AS/A level Physics Student Book 1

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents 4
How to use this book 6
Topic 1 8
Chapter 1: Working as a Physicist 8
1: Units 10
Base and derived quantities 10
SI units 10
Power prefixes 11
2: Estimation 12
Order of magnitude 12
Fermi questions 12
Topic 2: Mechanics 14
Chapter 2.1: Motion 14
1: Velocity and acceleration 16
Rate of movement 16
Acceleration 17
2: Motion graphs 18
Displacement-time graphs 18
Velocity-time graphs 19
Acceleration-time graphs 20
Adding forces in the same line 21
Free-body force diagrams 22
4: Moments 23
Moment of a force 23
Principle of moments 23
Centre of gravity 24
5: Newton’s laws of motion 26
Newton’s first law of motion 26
Newton’s second law of motion 26
Newton’s third law of motion 28
6: Kinematics equations 29
Zero acceleration 29
Constant acceleration 29
7: Resolving vectors 32
Resolving vectors calculations 32
Alternative resolution angles 33
8: Projectiles 34
Horizontal throws 34
Recombining velocity components 34
Vertical throws 35
Thinking Bigger: Durham Castle Siege 36
Exam-style questions 38
Chapter 2.2: Energy 40
1: Gravitational potential and kinetic energies 42
Gravitational potential energy 42
Kinetic energy 42
Conversion between Ep and Ek 43
2: Work and power 45
Work 45
Work done by forces at an angle 46
Efficiency 47
Thinking Bigger: The Mechanics Of Hockey 48
Exam-style questions 50
Chapter 2.3: Momentum 52
1: Momentum 54
Momentum 54
2: Conservation of linear momentum 56
Collisions 56
Explosions 57
Newton’s third law 59
Thinking Bigger: Saving Hockey Goalkeepers 60
Exam-style questions 62
Topic 3: Electric circuits 64
Chapter 3.1: Electrical quantities 66
1: Electric current 66
Electric Charge 66
Electric Current 66
2: Electrical energy transfer 69
Voltages 69
Electrical models 70
3: Current and voltage relationships 72
Resistance calculations 72
Current–voltage characteristics 73
4: Resistivity 75
5: Conduction and resistance 77
Conduction in metals 77
The transport equation 78
Resistance 78
Resistivity 78
6: Semiconductors 80
Conduction in semiconductors 80
Insulators 82
Superconductivity 82
Thinking Bigger: Shocking Stuff 84
Exam-style questions 86
Chapter 3.2: Complete electrical circuits 88
1: Series and parallel circuits 90
Current 90
Voltages around circuits 91
Resistance 92
2: Electrical circuit rules 94
Electric current rule 94
Electrical voltages rule 94
3: Potential dividers 96
The potential divider equation 97
The potentiometer 98
Potential dividers in sensor circuits 98
4: Emf and internal resistance 100
5: Power in electric circuits 102
Electrical work 102
Electrical power 102
Efficiency 103
Thinking Bigger: Curious Voltage Drop 106
Exam-style questions 108
Topic 4: Materials 110
Chapter 4.1: Fluids 110
1: Fluids, density and upthrust 112
Fluids 112
Density 112
Upthrust 113
Floating 113
The hydrometer 114
2: Fluid movement 115
Laminar flow 115
Streamlining 116
3: Drag act 117
Viscosity 117
4: Terminal velocity 119
Stokes’ law 119
Viscous drag 121
Thinking Bigger: The Plimsoll Line 122
Exam-style questions 124
Chapter 4.2: Solid material properties 126
1: Hooke’s law 128
Hooke’s law 128
Elastic strain energy 129
2: Stress, strain and the Young modulus 131
Stress 131
Strain 131
Young modulus 131
3: Stress-strain graphs 133
Stress-strain analysis 133
Thinking Bigger: Get Roped In 136
Exam-style questions 138
Topic 5: Waves and the particle nature of light 140
Chapter 5.1: Basic waves 140
1: Wave basics 142
Energy transfer 142
Graphing waves 142
Wave measurements 143
Pulse-echo measurements 143
2: Wave types 145
Transverse waves 145
Longitudinal waves 145
Graphing waves 145
Longitudinal waves in action 145
Thinking Bigger: Earthquake! 148
Exam-style questions 150
Chapter 5.2: The behaviour of waves 152
1: Wave phase and superposition 154
Phase 154
Wavefronts 155
Wave superposition 155
2: Stationary waves 157
Standing waves 157
String wave speeds 158
3: Diffraction 160
Diffraction 160
Diffraction patterns 160
The diffraction grating 161
4: Wave interference 163
Two-source interference 163
Two-slit interference 163
Explaining two-source interference 164
Thinking Bigger: The Marimba 166
Exam-style questions 168
Chapter 5.3: Optics 170
1: Refraction 172
Refraction 172
Dispersion 173
2: Total internal reflection 174
Refraction revisited 174
Applications of TIR 175
3: Lenses 176
Refraction in a lens 176
Power of a lens 177
4: Image formation 179
What is an image? 179
Image calculations 180
Magnification 180
5: Polarisation 182
Plane polarisation 182
Polarisation by refl ection and refraction 183
Polarisation by chemical solutions 183
Thinking Bigger: Glass Forensics 184
Exam-style questions 186
Chapter 5.4: Quantum physics 188
1: Wave–particle duality 190
Huygens’ principle 190
Light is a wave 190
Light is a particle 190
Electrons are particles 191
Electrons are waves 192
Waves or particles? 192
2: The photoelectric effect 193
Photoelectrons 193
The photoelectric effect equation 194
The photoelectric cell experiment 194
3: Electron diffraction and interference 196
Electron diffraction 196
de Broglie equation 196
Two-slit electron interference 197
Electron microscopy 197
4: Atomic electron energies 198
Electron energy levels 198
Line spectra 200