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Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Challenges to the authority of the state in the late 18th and 19th centuries Student Book

Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Challenges to the authority of the state in the late 18th and 19th centuries Student Book

Martin Collier | Rick Rogers | Adam Kidson


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Book Details


This book covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover\r Cover
Contents 3
How to use this book\r 4
Introduction: AS/A Level History\r 6
Britain, c1785–c1870: democracy, protest and reform\r 8
Introduction\r 8
Chapter 1.1: The growth of parliamentary democracy, c1785–c1870\r 10
Introduction\r 10
The Unreformed Parliament and its Critics\r 12
The pre-reform franchise 12
Parliamentary seats and elections before reform 12
Demands for reform, c1785–1820 13
The political demands of the manufacturing interests\r 18
Pressure for Change and Reform, 1820–52\r 19
Economic and social distress; emerging popular pressure, 1820–32\r 19
Reasons for the passing of the Great Reform Act, 1832\r 20
The 'Great' Reform Act, 1832 and its significance\r 21
The rise and fall of Chartism 23
Chartist demands 23
Change and continuity in post-reform Britain 28
'Reaching for Democracy'? Further Parliamentary Reform, 1852–70\r 29
A modernising nation 30
Changing political attitudes 30
The Reform Union and the Reform League 31
A leap in the dark? The Second Reform Act, 1867\r 32
Political attitudes to reform in the 1860s 33
The impact of the Second Reform Act 33
Chapter 1.2: Industrialisation and protest, c1785–c1870\r 36
Introduction\r 36
The Impact of Industrialisation in Britain\r 37
Funding the revolution: the growth of banking and investment\r 37
A new industrial middle class 39
The north/south divide: economic diversity in Britain 40
The growth of industrial towns and cities 42
Government attitudes towards industrial development\r 42
A Worker's Paradise? Living and Working in Industrial Britain\r 44
Living conditions in the industrial towns and cities 45
Working conditions 46
The experiences of women and children 47
Workers Unite? Industrial Protest in Britain\r 49
The Luddites and industrial protest in early 19th-century Britain\r 50
'Captain Swing' and agrarian unrest\r 52
The Ten Hour Movement 53
Reforming Industrial Britain, 1833–70\r 54
Factory reform: opposing views?\r 55
The impact of factory reform 55
Improving living conditions in Britain, 1848–70\r 58
Chapter 1.3: Unionism and co-operation, c1785–c1879\r 62
Introduction\r 62
Unions and their Opponents, c1785–1834\r 63
Trade societies and 'knobsticks'\r 63
The growth of trade unions 64
Government response to trade unions 68
New Model Unionism, 1850–70\r 70
The Amalgamated Society of Engineers 71
The foundation of the Trades Union Congress 73
Government response to New Model Unionism\r 75
The Growth of Co-Operative Activities\r 78
New Lanark and co-operative activities 78
The Rochdale Pioneers and co-operative economics 81
The growth of friendly societies 84
Chapter 1.4: Poverty and pauperism, c1785–c1870\r 88
Introduction\r 88
The Old Poor Law and Pressure for Change\r 89
The implementation and effectiveness of poor relief before 1834\r 89
Attitudes towards the poor 93
Ideological pressures 94
Financial pressures for change 96
The Impact and Effectiveness of the Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834–47\r 98
The workhouse regime 99
Opposition to the Poor Law 101
Changing Attitudes Towards the Poor and Pauperism, 1834–70\r 104
The Andover workhouse scandal and national opinion 104
The growth of charity and self-help 107
The significance of key individuals in challenging attitudes\r 109
Chapter 1.5: What explains the abolition of the slave trade at the end of the period, c1785–1807?\r 114
How Important was the Growth in Humanitarianism?\r 116
The Quakers 117
The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade\r 118
How Significant were Economic and Financial Factors?\r 120
Eric Williams and the 'Decline Thesis'\r 121
Economic considerations 122
Financial considerations 123
What was the Impact of the Work of Individuals?\r 124
Thomas Clarkson (1760–1846)\r 125
William Wilberforce (1759–1833) 127
Olaudah Equiano (1745–97) 129
The Changing Political Climate\r 131
The influence of the American War of Independence\r 131
Napoleon and the British slave trade\r 131
Changing political climates and growing fears of slave resistance\r 132
Assessing historical perspectives 134
Preparing for your exams\r 139
Preparing for your AS Level Paper 1 exam\r 139
Preparing for your A Level Paper 1 exam\r 153
The unification of Italy, c1830–70\r 166
Introduction\r 166
Chapter 2a.1: Challenges to the restored order and the failure of revolution, c1830–49\r 168
Introduction\r 168
How Significant were the Challenges to the Restored Order, 1830–47?\r 169
Political geography in 1830 169
The failure of the 1830–32 revolutions\r 171
The cultural challenge of the Risorgimento\r 173
Political ideas and secret societies\r 174
Economic divisions and social problems 175
What was the Impact of Italian Nationalism, c1830–49?\r 178
Mazzini and Young Italy\r 178
Balbo and the rule of Charles Albert in Piedmont\r 179
Gioberti and the reforms of Pope Pius IX\r 180
Why did Revolution Break Out in 1848–49?\r 181
Outbreak of revolution in the Italian states\r 182
The situation in Piedmont, including the First Italian War of Independence\r 184
Counter-revolution 186
The Roman Republic, 1848–49 186
Why did the Revolutions of 1848–49 Fail?\r 188
Austrian and French intervention 189
Lack of international support 189
Reaction of the papacy 190
Piedmont's weaknesses\r 190
Chapter 2a.2: The rise of Piedmont, 1849–56\r 192
Introduction\r 192
What was the Legacy of the 1848–49 Revolutions?\r 193
Victor Emmanuel II and the Statuto\r 193
The impact on Austrian dominance 196
The impact on the papacy 197
The French occupation of Rome 198
The failure of Mazzini 198
Developments in liberalism and nationalism 200
What were the Main Political Developments in Piedmont?\r 202
The rule of Victor Emmanuel II\r 202
The appointment of Cavour 1852 and its impact\r 203
Anti-clericalism\r 203
Policies to create political stability\r 204
Liberal and nationalist infl uences\r 204
How did Piedmont Develop Economically?\r 206
Commercial and industrial growth 206
The significance of trade agreements and the impact of the development of railways\r 207
Government investment in infrastructure\r 207
The significance of Cavour\r 208
How did Piedmont's Diplomatic Position Change Between 1849 and 1856?\r 209
Relationship with Austria 1849\r 209
The significance of the Crimean War and Congress of Paris\r 210
Relations with Britain and France\r 212
The significance of Cavour\r 213
Chapter 2a.3: The creation of the kingdom of Italy, 1856–61\r 216
Introduction\r 216
Why did War Against Austria Break Out in 1859?\r 217
Support from Piedmont for nationalists\r 217
Relations with Napoleon III\r 219
Significance of the Orsini Affair and Pact of Plombières\r 220
The preparation for and outbreak of war with Austria\r 222
What was the Impact of the War?\r 223
Significance of Magenta and Solferino\r 223
The nature of the peace settlement 224
Cavour's resignation and its significance\r 226
Annexation of central Italian states\r 226
Loss of Nice and Savoy 227
What was the Significance of Garibaldi?\r 228
Garibaldi's aims and objectives\r 228
Garibaldi's relationship with Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II\r 229
Expedition to and success in Sicily\r 230
Invasion and takeover of Naples\r 231
How did Italy Unite in 1860–61?\r 232
Garibaldi's decision to take Rome and the response of Piedmont\r 232
The significance of the meeting at Teano\r 233
Plebiscites in the south and papal territories\r 236
The kingdom of Italy established\r 237
Chapter 2a.4: Consolidating the kingdom of Italy, 1861–70\r 240
Introduction\r 240
How Serious were the Major Obstacles to Unity After 1861?\r 242
Austrian and French influence\r 242
The papacy\r 242
The reaction to 'Piedmontisation', including the 'Brigands’ war’, 1861–65\r 243
The economic and social impact of the north-south divide\r 249
How Successfully was the 'Venetian Question' Solved?\r 250
Failure of Garibaldi, 1862–64\r 250
Aims of Victor Emmanuel\r 251
Diplomacy with Prussia and war with Austria 1866\r 251
Union with Venetia\r 252
How Effectively was the Problem of Rome Solved\r 254
The papacy and French occupation\r 254
The failure of Garibaldi and diplomacy, 1862–67\r 255
The impact of the Franco-Prussian war\r 256
The Italian takeover of Rome\r 257
To what Extent was Italy Unified in 1871?\r 257
Factors promoting unity, including the constitutional monarchy and national institutions\r 257
The divisive effects of social and economic problems\r 258
Papal opposition\r 259
Political disunity and continued irredenta\r 259
Preparing for your exams\r 265
Preparing for your AS Level Paper 2 exam\r 265
Preparing for your A Level Paper 2 exam\r 275
The unification of Germany, c1840–71\r 284
Introduction\r 284
Chapter 2b.1: Popular pressure and causes of revolution, 1840–48\r 286
Introduction\r 286
The Political Situation in the 1840s\r 286
The role of Austria\r 286
Prussia under Frederick William III\r 288
The growth of liberalism 289
The growth of nationalism 291
The 1840 crisis 293
Economic and Social Developments in the 1840s\r 294
The economic situation within the German Confederation\r 294
The development of the railways\r 299
Industrialisation and social classes\r 300
The economic crisis of 1846–47\r 301
What were the Short-Term Causes of Revolution, 1846–48?\r 302
Middle-class unrest\r 302
Liberalism in Prussia\r 303
The impact of the revolution in France 304
The constitutional crisis in Baden\r 305
Outbreak of Revolution in 1848\r 306
The 1848 revolution in Austria\r 306
The 1848 revolution in the German states\r 306
Response of the German rulers\r 308
Summary\r 309
Chapter 2b.2: Failure of revolution, 1848–51\r 310
Introduction\r 310
To what Extent did the Frankfurt Parliament Attain its Objectives by 1849?\r 312
The Vorparlament\r 312
The nature and work of the Frankfurt Assembly\r 313
Disagreements 315
The Fifty Articles 316
The collapse of the assembly 316
Significance of the weaknesses and political divisions\r 317
What was Changed by the Prussian Revolution, 1848–49?\r 320
Events in Berlin and the response of Frederick William IV\r 320
The liberal government\r 321
Conservative reaction and counter-revolution 323
The Prussian constitution 324
In what Ways can the Revolutions of 1848 Be seen as a Failure?\r 325
Counter-revolution and the strength of conservative forces across Germany\r 326
The revival of Habsburg power in Austria\r 327
Weakness of, and divisions among, revolutionaries 328
How did the Revolutions of 1848 Change German Politics?\r 329
The ambitions of Prussia and Austria, 1849–51\r 329
The re-establishment of the German Confederation\r 330
The significance of revolutionary failure for German nationalism and liberalism\r 332
Summary\r 333
Chapter 2b.3: Austro-Prussian rivalry, 1852–66\r 334
Introduction\r 334
How Far did Economic and Political Setbacks Weaken Austria's Position by 1862?\r 335
Political influence in Germany\r 335
Economic and financial problems\r 336
Rejection from the Zollverein\r 337
International setbacks\r 338
To what Extent did Prussia Take the Lead in the Industrialisation of the German Confederation?\r 339
Development of the Zollverein\r 339
Financial strength\r 340
Increased industrial production\r 340
Agricultural reform\r 341
The expansion of the railways and state investment\r 342
How Effective were Reforms in Prussia in Enabling her to Rival Austria?\r 343
Otto von Manteuffel's reforms\r 343
Liberalism and nationalism and the Nationalverein\r 344
The regency and accession of William I\r 346
Reform of the army\r 346
The constitutional crisis, 1860–62\r 346
The impact of Bismarck's appointment\r 347
Why was Prussia Able to Achieve Pre-Eminence in Germany By 1866?\r 348
Bismarck's aims\r 348
Austria attempts to reform the Confederation\r 349
The significance of the Polish revolt\r 352
Austrio-Prussian intervention in Denmark\r 352
Bismarck's preparation for war\r 352
The significance of the Seven Weeks' War\r 355
Summary\r 357
Chapter 2b.4: Prussia and the Kleindeutschland solution, 1866–71\r 358
Introduction\r 358
What was the Significance of Prussia's Role in Germany, 1866–67?\r 359
The Treaty of Prague\r 359
The annexation of the north German states\r 360
The North German Confederation\r 361
Prussia's relationship with south German states\r 362
Creation of the Zollparlament\r 363
Bismarck and the National Liberals\r 364
Why were Prussian Relations with France so Important?\r 364
Napoleon III and Bismarck\r 364
The significance of the Luxembourg Crisis \r 366
The Hohenzollern candidature and the Ems telegram\r 368
The outbreak of war\r 370
The significance of the international situation 1870\r 372
Why did Prussia need to Win the Franco-Prussian War?\r 373
Increased support for German nationalism\r 373
Strengthening of Bismarck's position\r 373
The creation of a German Empire\r 374
The significance of the Treaty of Frankfurt, 1871\r 377
Why was Prussia so Successful in Unifying Germany?\r 378
The role of Bismarck\r 378
Military strength 379
Economic factors\r 379
German nationalism\r 380
The international situation\r 380
Revolution from above or revolution from below?\r 381
Preparing for your exams\r 383
Preparing for your AS Level Paper 2 exam\r 383
Preparing for your A Level Paper 2 exam\r 393
Index\r 402
Acknowledgements\r 406