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Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Communist states in the 20th century Student Book

Edexcel AS/A Level History, Paper 1&2: Communist states in the 20th century Student Book

Steve Phillips | Ben Gregory | Nigel Bushnell


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Book Details


This book covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents 3
How to use this book 4
Introduction: AS/A Level History 6
Russia 1917-91: from Lenin to Yeltsin 8
1.1: Communist government in the USSR, 1917-85 10
Introduction 10
Bolshevik aims 10
The October Revolution, 1917 12
How did the Bolsheviks Establish a One-Party State Between 1917 and 1924? 12
The creation of a one-party state and the party congress of 1921 12
The nature of government under Lenin 15
The growing centralisation of power 17
Conclusion 20
How did Stalin Exercise Power Over the Communist Party and the Soviet State? 20
The elimination of opponents in government and party 21
The purges of the 1930s 22
Stalin’s power over party and state 27
To what Extent did the Nature of Communist Party Rule Change After the Death of Stalin up to 1985? 31
Khrushchev’s attempts to reform government and de-Stalinisation 31
The return to stability under Brezhnev, 1964–82 33
Growing political stagnation 34
Conclusion 35
1.2: Industrial and agricultural change, 1917-85 36
Introduction 36
How did the Government Exercise Control Over the Economy Between 1917 and 1928? 36
The nationalisation of industry 37
War Communism and the New Economic Policy 38
State control of industry and agriculture 41
What was the Impact of the Five-Year Plans and Collectivisation under Stalin? 43
The Five-Year Plans and industrial change 43
Agricultural collectivisation and its impact 46
Recovery from war after 1945 51
How far did Economic Policy Change Between 1953 and 1985? 53
The promotion of light industry, chemicals and consumer goods 53
Investment in agriculture and the Virgin Lands Scheme 55
The limited attempts at reform after 1964 56
Economic decline 58
1.3: Control of the people, 1917-85 62
How did the Soviet Government Exercise Control over the Media, Propaganda and Religion? 62
State control of mass media and propaganda 63
The personality cults of Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev 65
Attacks on religious beliefs and practices 68
How did the use of the Secret Police Change Through the Period 1917 to 1985? 70
Attacks on opponents of the government 71
The roles of Yagoda, Yezhov and Beria 71
Andropov’s suppression of dissidents, 1967-82 76
The continued monitoring of populardiscontent, 1982-85 78
How Effective was the Soviet Government’s use of Culture and the Arts? 80
Prolekult , avant-garde and Socialist Realism, 1917-53 80
Nonconformity from the 1950s 83
Clashes between artists and the government to 1985 84
1.4: Social developments, 1917-85 88
Introduction 88
How Successful was the Government in 89
Full employment, housing and social benefits, 1917-53 89
Khrushchev, Brezhnev and the promotion of a stable society, 1953-85 93
To what Extent did the Role of Women and the Family Change between 1917 and 1985? 97
The changing status of different groups of women in towns and countryside 98
Changing government attitudes towards the family as a social unit 102
How Successful was the Soviet Government’s Attempts to Improve the Provision of Education? 105
The growth of primary, secondary and higher education 105
State control of the curriculum 109
1.5: What explains the fall of the USSR, c1985-91? 114
Introduction 114
Evaluating Interpretations of History 116
How Important were Economic Weaknesses in Bringing about the fall of the USSR? 117
Long-term economic weakness 117
Gorbachev's initial economic reforms: discipline and acceleration 117
Interpretations of Gorbachev’s economic reforms 120
How Significant were the Failures of Gorbachev’s Political Reforms? 121
Glasnost and the need to reform the Party 122
Gorbachev’s attempted reforms of the Party 123
The impact of Gorbachev’s failure to reform the Party 124
Interpretations of Gorbachev’s failure to bring about political reform 125
What Impact did the Resurgence of Nationalism Play in the Collapse of the USSR? 126
The ending of the Brezhnev Doctrine 126
The consequences of the ending of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Eastern Europe 126
The communist collapse spreads 127
The growth of nationalist sentiment within the USSR 128
Interpretations of the role of nationalism within the USSR 130
How Far were Gorbachev and Yeltsin Responsible for the Collapse of the USSR in 1991? 131
Interpretations of Gorbachev’s responsibility for the collapse of the USSR 131
The role of Yeltsin in the collapse of the USSR 134
Preparing for your exams 139
Mao’s China, 1949-76 166
2a.1: Establishing Communist rule, 1949-57 168
Introduction 168
Key developments, 1911–49 168
How Serious were the Problems Facing the Prc when it was set up in 1949? 170
The aftermath of the civil war of 1946-49 170
The state of China’s industry, agriculture and national infrastructure 171
How Successful were the Communists in Creating a Political System that would Give them Control of Power Within the Prc? 173
The organisation of the government 174
Mao’s dominant position within government 178
The growth of democratic centralism 179
How Effectively did the Communist Party Deal with Opposition? 180
The reunification campaigns, 1949-50 181
The use of terror against opponents of Communist rule 182
The ‘three antis’ and ‘five antis’ movements, 1951-52 184
The development of the laogai system 185
The Hundred Flowers campaign (1957) and its aftermath 186
To what Extent did Involvement in the Korean Waraffect the Development of the Prc? 188
The war’s role in enhancing CCP control, suppressing opposition and promoting national unity 188
The human and fi nancial costs of intervention in Korea 189
China’s enhanced international prestige 191
2a.2: Agriculture and industry, 1949-65 192
How and why did the System of Land Ownership Change during 1949-57? 193
Attacks on landlordism and the redistribution of land 193
Moves towards agricultural co-operation 195
The change from voluntary to enforced collectivisation 196
What was the Impact of the People’s Communes after 1958? 197
Reasons for launching the Communes 197
How the Communes were organised 197
Communal living 198
The abolition of private farming 198
Lysenkoism 199
The great famine of 1958-62 199
The restoration of private farming by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping 203
How Successful was the First Five-Year Plan, 1952-56? 205
Why it was not immediately introduced 205
The USSR’s financial and technical support 205
The plan’s targets 205
Successes and failures of the plan 206
What was the Impact of the Second Five-Year Plan, 1958-62? 207
Mao’s reasons for launching it 207
How the plan worked 208
State-owned enterprises 209
Successes and failures of the Second Five-Year Plan 211
The Lushan Conference, July 1959 212
Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and economic reform, 1962–65 (the Third Five-Year Plan) 213
2a.3: The Cultural Revolution and its aftermath, 1966-76 216
Why did Mao Launch the Cultural Revolution? 218
Divisions within the CCP between ideologues and pragmatists 218
The quest for permanent revolution 218
Attacks on the bureaucracy 219
Divisions within the CCP between supporters and opponents of Mao’s policies 219
How Effective were the Red Guards in Carrying out the Cultural Revolution? 222
Mao’s hold on young people 222
The mass rallies of 1966 224
The attacks on the ‘four olds’ 225
The growth of anarchy and the use of terror 226
Cultural destruction 226
How was the cultural Revolution used to Attack Mao’s Political and Class 227
The attacks on Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping 227
The attack on Lin Biao 227
The purging of the CCP membership 230
Purging ‘Capitalist roaders’ and foreigners living in China 231
How and why was the cultural Revolution Wound down after 1968? 233
The restoration of order by the PLA 233
The ‘up to the mountains and down to the villages’ campaign 234
The return to power of Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai 235
Reining in the Gang of Four 236
The death of Mao, 1976 236
2a.4: Social and cultural changes, 1949-76 240
To what Extent did the status of Women Change Between 1949 and 1976? 240
Foot binding 241
The Marriage Law, 1950 241
The impact of collectivisation and the communes on women’s lives 243
Women and the family 244
The nature and extent of change 245
The problem of changing traditional views, especially in the countryside 246
How Successful were the Changes made to Education and Health Provision? 247
The growth of literacy 247
Pinyin 247
The collapse of education after 1966 247
Health: the barefoot doctors 248
Successes and failures of health-care reform 249
Why did the Communists Attempt to Change Chinese Culture? 251
Attacks on traditional culture in towns and the countryside 252
The role of Jiang Qing and the imposition of revolutionary art and culture 254
How did the Communists Seek to Destroy the Practice of Religion? 257
Attacks on Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Islam and ancestor worship 257
Conclusion 261
Preparing for your exams 265
The German Democratic Republic, 1949-90 284
2b.1: Establishing and consolidating communist rule in the GDR, c1949-61 286
Introduction 286
Why did Events in the years 1945 to 1949 Lead to the Division of Germany? 288
The Soviet zone 289
The creation of the Socialist Unity Party (SED) 289
Growing divisions among the victor powers 290
Formation of the GDR, 1949 292
To what Extent was the System of Government in the Gdr Democratic? 292
The head of state 293
The Volkskammer (People’s Chamber) 293
The Länderkammer (States Chamber) 293
The dominance of the SED and its General Secretary, Ulbricht 294
Conclusion 295
How Successful was the Development of the GDR’s Economy in the years 1949-61? 295
The USSR’s seizure of reparations from1945 296
Socialist economics and planning 296
Industrial developments 297
Agricultural collectivisation 298
Opposition to socialist economics 299
The rising of June 1953 299
The impact of socialist economics on the GDR 301
Why did the GDR find it Necessary to Build the Berlin Wall in 1961? 302
Emigration in the 1950s and its impact 302
Reasons for the crisis of 1960-61 304
The building of the Berlin Wall and its importance 305
The impact of the Berlin Wall 306
The influence of Khrushchev 308
Conclusion 308
2b.2: The development of the East Germanstate, 1961-85 310
Introduction 310
To what extent did the GDR’s economy stabilise after 1961? 311
Economic stabilisation after 1961 311
The end of mass emigration 312
The New Economic System, 1963-68, and the Economic System of Socialism, 1968-71 313
Increased economic production, including consumer goods 315
Membership of COMECON and its importance 316
Conclusion 317
How Successful was Honecker in Developing a Distinct Identity for the GDR During the Years 1971-85? 317
Honecker and the development of a GDR identity 317
The importance of sport, especially Olympic successes and women’s sports 319
Conclusion 321
How Far did Relations Between the GDR and the FRG Improve in the Years 1961-85? 322
Ostpolitik (‘East Politics’) 322
The agreements of 1970-72 324
The relaxation of travel restrictions and the growth of communications with the FRG 325
The impact of Ostpolitik on the GDR’s economy and standard of living 326
How Successful was the GDR in Improving its International Prestige in the Years 1961-85? 328
International recognition of the GDR 328
State visits 329
Relations with COMECON and the Warsaw Pact countries 330
The attitude of the Soviet government towards the GDR 331
Conclusion 332
2b.3: Life in East Germany, 1949-85 334
Introduction 334
Did the GDR Create a Successful Welfare System? 335
Housing 335
Education 337
The changing status and role of women 339
The development of an extensive social welfare programme 339
Did a combination of repression and support keep the SED in control? 341
The Ministry of State Security (the Stasi): its methods and activities 341
Control of young people through the Free German Youth (FDJ) 343
Propaganda and censorship 345
Extent of popular support for the GDR 347
Conclusion 347
What was the role of the protestant church in the GDR? 348
Attacks on religious beliefs and practices 348
Education and Protestant youth groups 349
The establishment of a dialogue between Church and state 350
How Far did Western Influences have an impact on life in the GDR? 351
The impact of Ostpolitik on travel between the two German states 352
The influence of television, films and popular music 353
Conclusion 356
2b.4: Growing crises and the collapse ofcommunist rule in the GDR, 1985-90 358
Introduction 358
Why were the economic problems of the GDR so severe by the late 1980s? 359
The economy in the 1980s 360
The growing national debt 360
High spending on health and welfare 361
The poor quality of consumer and other goods 361
Economic relations with West Germany 362
How significant was gorbachev’s refusal to continue to support the GDR? 363
The impact of perestroika and glasnost on the GDR’s government and people 363
The pressure for reform 364
The role of Protestant opposition groups 365
The declining authority of the SED government 365
How did events in 1989 lead to such a sudden opening of the berlin wall? 366
The opening of Hungary’s border with Austria 367
The impact of emigration from the GDR 368
Gorbachev’s visit to East Berlin in October 368
The decline of Honecker’s infl uence and his dismissal 370
Krenz and the opening of the Berlin Wall 370
Conclusion 373
Why was the reunification of the GDR and the FRG so rapid? 375
The collapse of the SED government in 1989 and the elections of March 1990 375
The reunifi cation of East and West Germany, March-October 1990 377
The attitudes of Kohl, Britain, the USA and the USSR 377
The accession of the eastern territories to West Germany 380
Conclusion 381
Preparing for your exams 383
Index 402
Acknowledgements 406