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Infectious Diseases E-Book

Infectious Diseases E-Book

Jonathan Cohen | William G Powderly | Steven M. Opal


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Book Details


Drs. Cohen, Powderly and Opal, three of the most-respected names in infectious disease medicine, lead a diverse team of international contributors to bring you the latest knowledge and best practices. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes brand-new information on advances in diagnosis of infection; Hepatitis C; managing resistant bacterial infections; and many other timely topics. An abundance of photographs and illustrations; a practical, clinically-focused style; highly-templated organization; and robust interactive content combine to make this clinician-friendly resource the fastest and best place to find all of the authoritative, current information you need.

  • Hundreds of full-color photographs and figures provide unparalleled visual guidance.
  • Consistent chapter organization and colorful layouts make for quick searches.
  • Clinically-focused guidance from "Practice Points" demonstrates how to diagnose and treat complicated problems encountered in practice.
  • The "Syndromes by Body System", "HIV and AIDS", and "International Medicine" sections are designed to reflect how practicing specialists think when faced with a patient.
  • Sweeping updates include new or revised chapters on:
    • Hepatitis C and antivirals
    • Fungal infection and newer antifungals
    • Microbiome and infectious diseases as well as advances in diagnosis of infection; Clostridium difficile epidemiology; infection control in the ICU setting; Chlamydia trachomatis infection; acquired syndromes associated with autoantibodies to cytokines;; management of multidrug resistant pathogens; probiotics, polymyxins, and the pathway to developing new antibiotics
    • HIV including HIV and aging, antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, and cure for HIV

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
9780702063381v1_WEB.pdf 1
Front Cover 1
Inside Front Cover 2
Infectious Diseases 3
Copyright Page 6
Table Of Contents 7
Preface to the Fourth Edition 16
List of Contributors 17
Dedication 39
1 Introduction to Infectious Diseases 41
1 The Evolution of Koch’s Postulates 41
Key Concepts 41
Introduction 41
A Historical Perspective 41
Limitations of Koch’s Postulates 42
Virulence, Pathogenicity and Causation 42
Beyond Infection: Micro-organisms and Chronic Disease 43
Conclusions – and a Note of Caution 43
Key References 43
References 44
2 Nature and Pathogenicity of Micro-organisms 45
Key Concepts 45
Introduction 45
The Normal Microbial Flora of the Human Host 45
Definition and Comparison of Infectious Agents 45
General Properties and Classification of Viruses 46
Taxonomy of Viruses 46
Common Steps in Viral Replication 46
Structure of Viruses 46
The Viral Genome 47
The Capsid 47
The Envelope 49
Viral Gene Expression Strategies 49
General Properties and Classification of Bacteria 49
Bacterial Dichotomy Revealed by a Simple Staining Technique 51
Organization of the Bacterial Cell 51
Transcription and Translation in Bacteria 51
Motility 51
Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease 51
Lifestyles and Pathogenesis 53
Endogenous Infections and Normal Microbial Flora of the Human Host 53
Exogenous Infections and the Normal Flora 53
Exogenous Infections 54
The Infection Process 54
Attachment to Host Cells 54
Adherence 54
Ubiquitous Receptors 54
Bacterial Adhesins 54
Pili and Fibrillae. 55
Afimbrial Adhesins. 55
Viral Adhesion 55
Invasion 56
Invasive and Noninvasive Micro-Organisms 56
Enteroinvasive Pathogens and the Membranous Cell Gateway 56
Actin-Based Intracellular Motility of Microbial Pathogens 57
Subepithelial Invasion and Spread Through the Body 58
Infection of Distant Target Organs 58
Viral Invasion: the Example of Measles Virus 59
Cell and Tissue Damage Induced by Micro-Organisms 59
Bacterial Toxins 59
The Diphtheria Toxin as Example of an A–B Toxin 60
Hydrolyzing Enzymes 60
Apoptosis 60
Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effect 60
Infection and Cancer 62
Damage Resulting from Cytotoxic Lymphocytes 62
Harmful Immune Responses 62
Autoimmunity 62
Hypersensitivity Reactions 62
Type I or Immediate Hypersensitivity. 62
Type II or Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity. 62
Type III or Immune Complex-Mediated Hypersensitivity. 63
Type IV or Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity. 63
Superantigens and Bacterial Components Associated with Toxic and Septic Shock 63
How Micro-Organisms Escape Host Defense 63
Surviving the Phagocyte 63
Inhibition of Phagocyte Mobilization 63
Killing the Phagocytes before Being Ingested 63
‘Professional’ Phagocytes as Vectors or Refuges 64
Avoiding Ingestion 64
Survival within Phagocytes 64
Inactivation of Reactive Oxygen Species 64
Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides 64
Antigenic and Phase Variations 65
Antigenic Variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae 65
Shift and Drift in Influenza A Viruses 66
Antigenic Variations in Trypanosoma brucei (see Chapter 110) 66
Immunosuppression 66
Conclusion 66
Key References 66
References 67
3 Host Responses to Infection 68
Key Concepts 68
Overview 68
Innate Immunity 68
Barrier Functions of the Innate Immune Response 68
Recognition and Effector Functions of the Innate Immune Response 69
Innate Immune Recognition by Pattern Recognition Receptors 69
Toll-like Receptors (TLRs). 69
NOD-like Receptors (NLRs). 72
C-type Lectin Receptors (CLRs). 73
Collaborative Interactions Between PRRs. 73
Phagocytes 73
Adaptive Immunity 74
Cellular Immune Responses 74
Overview 74
CD4+ T-Cell Responses 74
CD8+ T-Cell Responses 75
Regulatory T-Cell Responses 75
Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) 75
Humoral Immune Response 76
Antibodies 76
Antibody Structure 76
Immunoglobulin Classes 76
Generation of Antibody Diversity and Isotype Switching 77
Antibody Functions 78
Neutralization. 78
Complement Activation. 78
Opsonization. 79
Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity. 79
Modulation of the Immune Response. 79
Complement 79
Initiation of the Complement Cascade 79
Classic Pathway. 79
Alternate Pathway. 79
Lectin Pathway. 79
Formation of the Membrane Attack Complex. 79
Disorders of the Complement System 81
Key References 81
References 82
4 Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens and Diseases, and Health Consequences of a Changing Climate 84
Key Concepts 84
Introduction 84
A Short History of Emerging Infectious Diseases 85
Human–Ecosystem Interactions and Emerging Infectious Diseases 86
Travel and Emerging Infectious Diseases 87
Poverty and Emerging Infectious Diseases 87
Governmental and Geopolitical Factors Associated with Emerging Infectious Diseases 87
Behavioral Changes and Emerging Infectious Diseases 89
Crowding, Population Density and Emerging Infectious Diseases 89
Medical Technology and Emerging Infectious Diseases 90
Climate, Weather, Natural Disasters and Emerging Infectious Diseases 90
Detecting Emerging Pathogens and Outbreaks 92
Conclusion 92
Key References 92
References 93
5 Mathematical Models in Infectious Disease Epidemiology 95
Key Concepts 95
Dynamics of Infectious Disease Transmission 95
A Typical Epidemic 95
Insights from Transmission-Dynamic Modeling 96
Use of Models for Analysis of Epidemics and Interventions 96
Epidemiologic Data 96
Reproduction Numbers 96
Structure of Models of Infectious Diseases 97
Example Compartmental Model of Influenza 97
Emergency Preparedness and Response 98
Pandemic Influenza 98
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 98
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 99
Future Research 99
Acknowledgment 99
Key References 99
References 100
6 Infection Prevention and Control, and Antimicrobial Stewardship 101
Key Concepts 101
Introduction 101
Trends and Complexity of Current Healthcare in Higher-Income Countries 101
Organization of Infection Prevention and Control 101
Manage Critical Data and Information 101
Develop, Implement and Monitor Surveillance Based upon an Institution-Specific Risk Assessment 101
Develop and Implement Policies and Procedures to Prevent or Minimize Infection Risk 102
Intervene to Prevent Disease Transmission 102
Outbreak Investigation and Control 102
The Role of the Microbiology Laboratory 103
Education and Training 104
Collaborate with Other Programs to Achieve Common Goals 104
Occupational and Employee Health 104
Environmental Health and Safety and Environmental Services 104
Disinfection and Sterilization 104
Pharmacy and Therapeutics, and Antimicrobial Stewardship 104
Safety, Quality and Public Reporting 105
Disaster and Bioterrorism Preparedness 105
Isolation Precautions 105
Standard and Transmission-Based Precautions 105
Standard Precautions 105
Gloves, Masks, Eye Protection and Face Shields, Aprons, Gowns and Other Protective Body Equipment. 105
Transmission-Based Precautions 105
Contact Precautions. 105
Droplet Precautions. 106
Airborne Precautions. 106
Vacating an Airborne-Precautions Patient Room. 106
Healthcare and Device-Associated Infections 107
Device-Related HAI 107
Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections 107
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia 107
Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections 107
Procedure-Related HAI 107
Multidrug-Resistant Organisms 107
Key References 108
References 109
7 Bacterial Genomes 110
Key Concepts 110
Introduction 110
Sequencing Strategies 111
Benchtop Sequencers 111
Single-Cell Genome Sequencing 111
Analysis of Genome Sequences 111
Data Analysis 111
Pangenomics 111
Metagenomics 113
Using Genome Sequences 113
Real-Time Genomics 113
Design of Molecular Assays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens 113
Molecular Genotyping 113
Taxono-Genomics 113
Phenotype Prediction 114
Development of Specific Culture Media 114
Detection of Resistance to Antimicrobials 114
Identification of Virulence Factors 114
Proteome Prediction 114
Development of Serologic Tools 114
Vaccine Design 114
Conclusions and Perspectives 114
Key References 115
References 116
8 The Microbiome in Infectious Diseases 117
Key Concepts 117
Introduction 117
Culture-Independent Sequence-Based Taxonomic and Functional Profiling of the Microbiome 118
Targeted Metagenomic Sequencing 118
16S rRNA Gene 118
18S rRNA Gene 119
Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing 119
The ‘Healthy Microbiome’ 120
Microbiome and Infectious Diseases 121
Microbiome and Bacterial Infections 121
Microbiome and Viral Infections 122
Microbiome and Micro-Eukaryotic Infections 122
Microbiome and Fungal Infections 122
Microbiome and Parasite Infections 122
Key References 123
References 124
2 Syndromes by Body System 126
Skin and Soft Tissue 126
9 Viral Exanthems 126
Key Concepts 126
Introduction 126
Classic Viral Exanthems 126
Varicella (see also Chapter 166) 126
Clinical Features 126
Complications 126
Management 127
Morbilli (see also Chapter 163) 127
Clinical Features 127
Complications 128
Management 128
Rubella (see also Chapter 163) 128
Clinical Features 128
Management 129
Erythema Infectiosum 129
Clinical Features 129
Complications 129
9780702063381v2_WEB 1078
Front Cover 1078
Infectious Diseases 1079
Copyright Page 1082
Table Of Contents 1083
Preface to the Fourth Edition 1092
List of Contributors 1093
Dedication 1115
5 HIV and AIDS 1116
89 Epidemiology of HIV Infection 1116
Key Concepts 1116
Introduction 1116
Surveillance of HIV Infection 1116
Modes of Transmission 1117
Sexual Transmission 1117
Perinatal and Postnatal Transmission 1118
Contaminated Blood Transfusions 1118
Injection Drug Use 1119
Geographic Distribution of HIV Infection 1119
North America, Australia and New Zealand 1119
Europe and Central Asia 1120
Sub-Saharan Africa 1121
Asia and the Pacific 1121
Latin America and the Caribbean 1123
Middle East and North Africa 1123
Global Response to HIV/AIDS 1123
Treatment Scale-up 1123
Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention among HIV-Positives 1124
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Prevention among HIV-Negatives 1124
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV 1125
Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision 1125
HIV Testing and Counseling 1125
Key References 1127
References 1128
Prevention 1130
90 Bio-behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission 1130
Key Concepts 1130
HIV Transmission Dynamics 1130
Biologic Issues Related to HIV Transmission 1130
Epidemiologic Issues Related to HIV Transmission 1131
Antiretrovirals for the Prevention of HIV Transmission 1131
Treating Sexually Transmitted Infections 1132
HIV Screening as a Prevention Modality 1132
Behavioral Approaches – Overview 1132
Psychosocial Models of Risk Behavior Underlying Prevention Interventions 1132
Outcome of Large-Scale and High-Impact-for-HIV Prevention Studies in the USA 1133
Prevention Trials Delivered Primarily to Heterosexual Individuals in STI and Primary Care Clinics 1133
Prevention Trials for MSM 1133