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Self-Awareness in Health Care

Self-Awareness in Health Care

Dev M Rungapadiachy


Additional Information

Book Details


Being self-aware is particularly important for healthcare professionals who need to manage their cognitive, affective and behavioural self in order to engage effectively in therapeutic relationships. This book examines how self-awareness can be developed and applied in practice by combining theoretical and practical approaches.
Dr. Dev M. Rungapadiachy is Lecturer in Interpersonal Communication, Psychology and Nursing at the University of Leeds, UK. His previous publications include Interpersonal Communication and Psychology for Health Care Professionals: Theory and Practice (1999).

'The book is a comprehensive guide on how to develop communication skills. It would be a useful reference for students and qualified nurses who are interested in empowerment, the use of language, developing relationships, stress, aggression, loss and the dynamics of power.' - Nursing Standard

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover\r Cover
Half-Title\r i
Title iii
Copyright iv
Contents v
List of Figures x
List of Tables xi
Preface xii
Acknowledgements xiv
Notes on Contributors xv
Introduction xvi
PART I On Developing Self-Awareness: A Way of Engaging 1
References 2
Chapter 1 Self-Awareness 3
Objectives 3
Introduction 3
What is self-awareness? 4
What is self? 5
Components of self-awareness 6
Forms of self-awareness 12
Self-concept 14
Body image, ideal-self, and self-esteem 15
Factors influencing self-concept formation 16
Becoming and developing self-awareness 17
Benefits and drawbacks of self-awareness 18
Self-awareness and engaging with patients 19
Summary 24
References 25
PART II Self-Awareness and the Person’s Experience of Illness 29
From health to ill health: Person experience 29
Reference 30
Chapter 2 Stress, Vulnerability, and Self-Awareness 31
Objectives 31
Introduction 31
Defining stress 32
Models of stress 33
Stress and the general adaptation syndrome 34
Stress, life events, change, and readjustment 34
Stress and cognitive appraisal 35
The concept of vulnerability 38
Inborn vulnerability (diathesis) 39
Acquired vulnerability 40
Stress and coping styles 49
Summary 51
References 51
Chapter 3 Power, Empowerment, and Self-Awareness in Helping Relationships 54
Objectives 54
Introduction 54
The concept of power 55
Power through 58
Obedience 59
Conformity and compliance 62
Why do we conform and comply? 62
Health care system: An empowering or disempowering process 65
Empowering patients through effective engagement 71
Summary 73
References 74
Chapter 4 Emotion of Loss and Self-Awareness 77
Objectives 77
Introduction 77
Definition of terms 78
The concept of loss 78
The concept of attachment 79
Separation 80
Loss and grief 81
Types of loss 81
A multidimensional approach 81
Grief is a natural process 84
John Bowlby: Four phases of mourning 84
Colin Murray-Parkes: Phases of grieving 86
Elizabeth Kübler-Ross: Five stages of grieving 88
Mourning 91
William Worden: The four tasks of mourning 91
Complicated and abnormal grief 95
Recognising and managing the impact of loss in self and others 96
The principles of engaging with the bereaved person 96
Summary 99
References 100
Chapter 5 Anger, Aggression, and Self-Awareness 102
Objectives 102
Introduction 102
Anger and aggression defined 103
Forms of aggression 105
Affective and instrumental aggression 106
Anger profile 107
Causes of aggression 110
Theories of anger and aggression 111
Ethological model 111
Socio-biological model 112
Heredity and hormonal explanations 113
Psychoanalytical model 113
Frustration–aggression model 114
Learning theories of aggression 115
Social cognitive learning theory 118
Social interaction theory 120
Anderson and Bushman’s general aggression model 120
Inputs 121
Routes 123
Outcomes 123
Functions of anger and aggression 124
Management of anger and aggression in self and in others 124
Summary 126
References 126
PART III Communication, Engagement, and the Helping Relationship 131
References 132
Chapter 6 The Use of Language and Self-Awareness 133
Objectives 133
Introduction 133
The formation of language 134
The development of language 134
Biological basis of language 135
Critical period in language development 139
Psychological basis of language 140
Egocentric and socialised language 143
Social basis of language 144
The acquisition of language 146
Language and health care professionals 149
Summary 152
References 153
Chapter 7 Intrapersonal Communication and Self-Awareness 156
Objectives 156
Introduction 156
Values 157
Attitudes 158
Social cognition, social perception, and social judgement 164
Attribution 164
Errors and biases 169
Actor–observer effect 171
Impression formation 171
Summary 174
References 174
Chapter 8 Interpersonal Communication and Interpersonal Skills 176
Objectives 176
Introduction 176
What is interpersonal communication? 177
The goal of interpersonal communication 178
Three fundamental interpersonal needs 180
Interpersonal styles 184
Interpersonal skills 185
Verbal and non-verbal communication 191
Functions of non-verbal communication 192
Types of non-verbal communication 195
Summary 198
References 198
Chapter 9 Engagement and Developing Relationships 201
Objectives 201
Introduction 201
From health to ill health: Patient experience 201
The process of engagement 204
A model of care and relationship building 208
Summary 222
References 222
Concluding Remarks 225
Notes 227
Glossary 230
Appendices 242
Author Index 245
Subject Index 250