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Pschology of Non-violence and Aggression

Pschology of Non-violence and Aggression

V.K. Kool


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Kool draws on recent research to illustrate that whilst the control of violence is a reaction to aggression, nonviolence is, by contrast, an active behaviour. The book explores a wide survey of theories and examples, spanning ideas in cognition, motivation and behaviour that will provide students with an engaging entry point to the subject.
V. K. KOOL is a Professor of Psychology at the State University of New York, USA. His previous teaching positions have included posts at the University of Wisconsin and the University of Oregon. He is considered a leading authority in this area and has written two academic books that were seen as positive additions to the field.

"This book is "the missing link" between the studies of nonviolence and the field of psychology...this is a valuable source of deep thinking to understand the psychological dimensions of peaceful behavior. Kool takes the reader through the main schools of psychology and discusses, with deep knowledge, their relevance for understanding how nonviolent behavior can be understood as a human reaction in certain situations. For psychologists, this volume opens doors to the lesser known world of nonviolent activities in social conflicts. As a complement to the enormous number of works on aggression arld violence, Kool offers a focus on the constructive, peaceful, and creative reactions for humans in conflicts. The problems of understanding and measuring nonviolence are discussed in detail, and several methodologies are examined. As a teacher of nonviolence and conflict resolution at several universities arouud the world, I see this book as an excellent textbook for studies at the graduate level. I find it unique in having so many references to leading theorists within traditional nonviolent research-Mohandas Gandhi, Johan Galtung, Gene Sharp, and Kenneth Boulding, just to mention a few. The well-structured use of outlines at the beginning of each chapter, the outstanding illustrations, closing summaries for each chapter, lists of suggested further reading, and pedagogical language means that this book will not only be valuable for eager students but also a popular textbook."

- Johansen Jorgan, Peace and Conflict, 14:341-342, 2008

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Contents v
List of Figures, Tables and Boxes viii
Preface xi
1 Understanding and Measuring Nonviolence 1
On the implications of studying nonviolence and violence together 2
Nonviolence and violence as passions 6
Nonviolence in academic psychology 7
Nonviolence: Its nature and definition 9
Nonviolence: A psychological perspective 15
Nonviolence and prospect theory 21
Measurement of nonviolence 24
Summary 28
Suggested readings 28
Appendix: The noviolence test (NVT) 29
The NVT code sheet 35
2 Human Aggression 36
The complex nature of human aggression 37
Types of aggression 37
Theories of aggression 40
Measurement of aggression 51
Summary 56
Suggested readings 57
3 Cognition and Self-control: The Engine and Brakes of Nonviolence 58
Information-processing approach to study cognition 59
On nonviolent cultures: Nonviolence as normative and internalized 63
Social identity theory (SIT): Tracking the social side of the cognition of nonviolence 68
Attributions and nonviolence 71
Self-control: The brakes of nonviolence 73
Moral dimension of nonviolence 76
Summary 86
Suggested readings 87
4 Motivation: The Fuel of Nonviolence 88
Self-interest 89
Power orientation and nonviolence 93
Mutualism versus adversarialism: The vulnerability of being too psychological or sociological 97
Moral exclusion: Us–them dichotomy 100
Positive nonviolence in positive psychology: Exploring human strengths in nonviolence 101
Summary 114
Suggested readings 114
5 The Nonviolent Individuals: Who Are They Like? 115
The nonviolent heroes: A psychological perspective 117
Resiliency: The ordinary magic of nonviolent individuals 120
Generativity 123
Ripeness 126
Psychology of wisdom 127
Anasakti 128
Components of the nonviolent personality 129
On violent behavior of nonviolent individuals and vice versa 130
Summary 134
Suggested readings 134
6 Conflict Resolution 135
Levels of conflicts 138
Intra-individual conflict 138
Inter-individual, inter-group and inter-organizational conflicts 139
Protracted conflicts 142
Some early studies on conflicts 144
Cognitions: The drivers of conflict 150
Traditional negotiation 156
Principled or integrative negotiation: Toward a nonviolent approach to conflict resolution 156
School-based programs for the control of aggression and conflict resolution 168
Conflict resolution versus conflict management 172
Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) 174
Restorative Justice (RJ) 176
Summary 178
Suggested readings 179
7 The Role of Psychology of Nonviolence in the 21st Century 180
Four levels of operation: Theory building, applications, applicability and applied 181
On examining the dimensions of relationship: Psychology of/in/and nonviolence 184
Approaching the levels of nonviolence 186
The culture of nonviolence and peace 187
Terrorism 191
Insights from classic researches in psychology 193
Need for an interdisciplinary approach 201
Structural violence and adversarialism 201
Some practical considerations 203
Summary 204
Suggested readings 204
References 205
Author Index 227
Subject Index 232