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Skeletal Trauma in Children E-Book

Skeletal Trauma in Children E-Book

Neil E. Green | Marc F. Swiontkowski


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Book Details


Obtain the best outcomes from the latest techniques with help from a "who's who" of pediatric orthopaedic trauma experts! This companion to Browner et al.: Skeletal Trauma, 4th Edition presents practical, focused guidance on managing traumatic musculoskeletal injuries in children and adolescents. It emphasizes the unique aspects of children's fractures in terms of epidemiology, mechanisms, management, and the challenges of treating the skeletally immature patient. State-of-the-art coverage explores growth and development, pathology, complications, child abuse, sports medicine...and almost every possible break from head to toe. A new chapter on sports-related trauma helps you to manage these increasingly prevalent injuries. And, a new, full-color page layout makes it easier to locate the answers you need quickly.

  • Complete, absolutely current coverage of relevant anatomy and biomechanics • mechanisms of injury • diagnostic approaches • treatment options • and associated complications equip you to confidently approach every form of pediatric musculoskeletal trauma.
  • Internationally recognized contributors include pediatric orthopaedists with trauma expertise as well as specialists in orthopaedic traumatology, providing expert guidance from the most trusted authorities in pediatric musculoskeletal trauma care.
  • A unique emphasis on outcomes assessment in children’s fractures helps you make the most valid clinical decisions.
  • Over 800 high-quality line drawings, diagnostic images, and full-color clinical photos show you what to look for and how to proceed.
  • An emphasis on problem-focused clinical judgment and state-of-the art treatment options assists you in making the best use of the newest techniques.
  • A new chapter on sports-related musculoskeletal injuries in children and adolescents helps you to manage the growing incidence of trauma resulting from recreational and team sports injuries.
  • An all-new, more user-friendly full-color text design enables you to find answers more quickly, and more efficiently review the key steps of each operative technique.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front Cover Cover
Skeletal Trauma in Children iii
Copyright Page iv
Dedication Page v
Contributors vii
Preface to the First Edition xi
Preface to the Fourth Edition xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Contents xvii
Chapter 1: Skeletal Growth, Development, and Healing as Related to Pediatric Trauma 1
History, Diagnosis, and Injury Mechanisms 1
Formation of Bone 3
Regulation of Growth and Development 4
Biology of Fracture Healing 5
Physeal Fracture Healing 7
Differences Between Pediatric and Adult Fracture Healing 7
Classification of Children's Fractures 12
Summary 16
References 16
Chapter 2: Physeal Injuries 19
Relevant Basic Science 19
Epidemiology 20
Mechanism of Injury 20
Classification 21
Diagnosis 23
Treatment 24
Characteristics of Commonly Injured Physes 28
Other Mechanisms of Physeal Injury 28
Treatment of Complications 32
Growth Arrest 32
Apophyseal Injuries 37
References 39
Chapter 3: Pathologic Fractures in Children 41
Bone Physiology 41
Outcome Triangle 42
Conclusion 55
References 55
Chapter 4: The Multiply Injured Child 57
Pathology 57
Anatomic Differences 57
Biomechanical Differences 58
Physiologic Differences 59
Incidence 59
Mechanism of Injury 59
Associated Injuries 60
Trauma Scoring Systems 62
Consequences of Injury 64
Trauma Evaluation and Management 65
Fracture Management of a Multiply Injured Child\r 74
Rehabilitation 79
References 81
Chapter 5: Fractures with Soft Tissue Injuries 85
Characteristics 85
Classification 85
Treatment Plan 86
Amputation 91
Achieving Bone Union 94
Fracture Fixation 94
References 104
Chapter 6: Complications of Fractures in Children 107
Vascular Injuries 107
Compartment Syndromes 110
Fat Embolism 111
Hypercalcemia of Immobilization 112
Ectopic Bone Formation 112
Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Cast Syndrome) 113
TRACTION-Induced Hypertension 114
Spontaneous Deep Vein Thrombosis 114
Malunion 114
Synostosis (Cross Union) 118
Late Angulation 119
Injury To the Triradiate Cartilage 120
Fractures of the Femoral Shaft: The Overgrowth Phenomenon 120
Growth Disturbances 121
Nonunion 126
Refracture 128
Ligamentous Instability 129
Nerve Injuries 130
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy 132
References 133
Chapter 7: Outcomes Assessment in Children with Fractures 143
Approaches to Evaluation of Treatment in Pediatric Orthopaedics 143
Existing Pediatric Outcomes Measures 145
Methodologic Difficulties of Measuring Function in Children 152
References 153
Chapter 8: Fractures and Dislocations of the Forearm, Wrist, and Hand 159
Mechanism 159
Forearm 167
Specific Injuries 177
Hand Fractures 191
Acknowledgments 197
References 197
Chapter 9: Fractures and Dislocations About the Elbow 207
Distal Humeral Fracture 207
Supracondylar Fracture 210
Extension-Type Supracondylar Fracture 214
Fracture-Separation of the Distal Humeral Physis 237
Fracture of the Lateral Condyle of the Humerus 242
Fracture of the Capitellum in Adolescents 250
Fracture of the Medial Condyle of the Humerus 250
Fracture of the Medial Epicondyle 255
Fracture of the Lateral Epicondyle 257
T-Condylar Fracture 257
Floating Elbow 257
Proximal Radial Fracture 257
Olecranon Fracture 263
Dislocation of the Elbow Joint 265
Radial Head Dislocation 272
Subluxation of the Radial Head 274
References 276
Chapter 10: Fractures and Dislocations About the Shoulder 283
Clavicle 283
Medial Clavicular Fractures and Pseudosternoclavicular Joint Dislocations 283
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury 288
Scapula 289
Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation 292
Proximal Humeral Fractures 296
Humeral Shaft Fractures 300
References 307
Chapter 11: Fractures of the Spine 313
Developmental Anatomy 313
Relevant Anatomy 313
Incidence 315
Diagnosis 316
Radiology of the Spine 320
Spinal Cord Injury in Children 327
References 348
Chapter 12: Fractures and Dislocations about the Hip and Pelvis\r 355
Pelvic Fractures and Dislocations 355
Proximal Femoral Fractures 374
Hip Dislocations 385
References 391
Chapter 13: Fractures of the Femoral Shaft 397
Anatomy and Development 397
Demographics and Causes of Injury 397
Diagnosis 399
Classification 401
Decision Making 401
Treatment Alternatives 404
Complications and Unexpected Outcomes 415
Complications Specific to Treatments 416
References 421
Chapter 14: Fractures and Dislocations About the Knee 425
Distal Femoral Metaphyseal and Physeal Fractures 425
Osteochondral Fractures 439
Fractures of the Patella 442
Tibial Spine Fracture 444
Tibial Tubercle Fracture 449
Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal and Physeal Fractures\r 452
Proximal Fibular Metaphyseal and Physeal Fractures\r 460
Open Fractures in the Knee Region 460
Patellar Dislocation 461
Dislocation of the Knee 464
References 464
Chapter 15: Fractures of the Tibia and Fibula 471
Pathology 471
Diagnosis 472
Management 473
References 503
Chapter 16: Fractures and Dislocations of the Foot and Ankle 507
The Ankle 507
The Foot 531
Complications of Injuries to the Distal Tibial and Fibular Growth Plates 573
Aphorisms for Ankle and Foot Injuries 578
References 579
Chapter 17: Nonaccidental Trauma 585
Legal Aspects 585
Historical Perspective 585
Forms of Abuse and Neglect 585
Physical Abuse 586
Specific Fractures 594
Conclusion 603
References 603
Chapter 18: Anesthesia and Analgesia for the Ambulatory Management of Children’s Fractures 609
Introduction 609
Principles of Pain Management in Children 609
Anesthetic Techniques 610
Sedation 616
Summary 620
References 620
Chapter 19: Rehabilitation of the Child with Multiple Injuries 623
Pediatric Polytrauma 623
Inpatient Rehabilitation 623
Rehabilitation of Fractures 623
Peripheral Nerve Injury and Electrodiagnosis\r 626
Spinal Cord Injury 627
Traumatic Brain Injury 628
Prevention of Reinjury 633
Phychosocial Factors 633
References 634
Chapter 20: Skeletal Trauma in Young Athletes 639
Epidemiology of Youth Sports 639
Influence of Gender 639
Anatomy of the Skeletally Immature Joint and Ligaments 639
Principles of Examination and Treatment of the Pediatric and Adolescent Patient 641
Diagnostic Imaging 641
Sport Injuries to the Upper Extremity 641
Back Pain in Athletes 647
Pelvis and Hip Injuries 650
Knee Problems 650
Patellar Dislocations 659
Foot and Ankle Problems 665
Fractures 670
References 677
Index 693