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Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Psychology

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Psychology

Dennis Howitt


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Now in its third edition, Dennis Howitt’s Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Psychology is better than ever. This trusted and valuable student resources provides clear explanations and examples that take the reader through qualitative research from data collection to analysis. It also features dedicated sections offering guidance on ethics, quality and report writing. Methods are broken down to give step-by-step practical advice and guidance, ensuring that students can understand the theory and carry out their own research. All of this is achieved while providing a thorough theoretical and historical context for the qualitative methods.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Cover Cover
Title page iii
Copyright page iv
Brief contents v
Contents vii
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xvii
Part 1 Background to qualitative methods in psychology 1
Chapter 1 What is qualitative research in psychology and was it really hidden? 5
Overview 5
What is qualitative research? 6
Science as normal practice in qualitative and quantitative research 11
The beginnings of modern psychology: introspectionism and the founding fathers of psychology 14
The logical positivists, behaviourism and psychology 17
The quantitative dominance of mainstream psychology 20
Statistics and the quantitative ethos in psychology 24
Conclusion 26
Key points 29
Additional resources 29
Chapter 2 How qualitative methods developed in psychology: the qualitative revolution 30
Overview 30
The growth of qualitative methods in psychology 31
The main qualitative methods in psychology up to the 1950s 37
The radical innovations of 1950–1970 44
The recent history of qualitative psychology 52
Conclusion 54
Key points 56
Additional resources 56
Part 2 Qualitative data collection 57
Chapter 3 Qualitative interviewing 59
Overview 59
What is qualitative interviewing? 60
The development of qualitative interviewing 64
How to conduct qualitative interviews 66
How to analyse a qualitative interview 78
When to use qualitative interviews 80
Evaluation of qualitative interviewing 82
Conclusion 83
Key points 84
Additional resources 87
Chapter 4 Focus groups 88
Overview 88
What are focus groups? 89
The development of focus groups 91
How to conduct focus groups 92
How to analyse data from focus groups 99
When to use focus groups 101
Examples of the use of focus groups 102
Evaluation of focus groups 105
Conclusion 106
Key points 106
Additional resources 107
Chapter 5 Ethnography/participant observation 108
Overview 108
What is ethnography/participant observation? 109
The development of ethnography/participant observation 112
How to conduct ethnography/participant observation 114
How to analyse ethnography/participant observation 120
Examples of the use of ethnography/participant observation 122
When to use ethnography/participant observation 125
Evaluation of ethnography/participant observation 128
Conclusion 129
Key points 130
Additional resources 130
Part 3 Qualitative data analysis 131
Chapter 6 Data transcription methods 134
Overview 134
What is transcription? 135
Is a transcript necessary? 136
Issues in transcription 140
The Jefferson approach to transcription 142
The development of transcription 148
How to do Jefferson transcription 149
When to use Jefferson transcription 155
Evaluation of Jefferson transcription 156
Conclusion 158
Key points 160
Additional resources 160
Chapter 7 Thematic analysis 162
Overview 162
What is thematic analysis? 163
The development of thematic analysis 167
How to do thematic analysis 168
When to use thematic analysis 175
Examples of the use of thematic analysis 176
Evaluation of thematic analysis 182
Conclusion 183
Key points 184
Additional resources 184
Chapter 8 Qualitative data analysis: grounded theory development 185
Overview 185
What is grounded theory? 186
The development of grounded theory 191
How to do grounded theory 193
When to use grounded theory 202
Examples of grounded theory studies 203
Evaluation of grounded theory 207
Conclusion 210
Key points 211
Additional resources 212
Chapter 9 Social constructionist discourse analysis and discursive psychology 213
Overview 213
What is social constructionist discourse analysis? 214
The development of social constructionist discourse analysis 231
How to do social constructionist discourse analysis 233
When to use social constructionist discourse analysis 240
Examples of social constructionist discourse analysis 241
Evaluation of social constructionist discourse analysis 247
Conclusion 249
Key points 249
Additional resources 250
Chapter 10 Conversation analysis 251
Overview 251
What is conversation analysis? 252
The development of conversation analysis 259
How to do conversation analysis 261
When to use conversation analysis 268
Examples of conversation analysis studies 268
Evaluation of conversation analysis 275
Conclusion 278
Key points 278
Additional resources 278
Chapter 11 Foucauldian discourse analysis 280
Overview 280
What is Foucauldian discourse analysis? 281
The development of Foucauldian discourse analysis 286
How to do Foucauldian discourse analysis 292
When to do Foucauldian discourse analysis 295
Examples of Foucauldian discourse analysis 296
Evaluation of Foucauldian discourse analysis 304
Conclusion 306
Key points 307
Additional resources 307
Chapter 12 Phenomenology 308
Overview 308
What is phenomenology? 309
The development of phenomenology 315
How to do phenomenological research 321
Data analysis 326
When to use phenomenology 329
Examples of phenomenological analysis 329
Evaluation of phenomenology 334
Conclusion 336
Key points 337
Additional resources 337
Chapter 13 Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) 339
Overview 339
What is interpretative phenomenological analysis? 340
The development of interpretative phenomenological analysis 342
The roots of interpretative phenomenological analysis in the idiographic approach 347
How to do interpretative phenomenological analysis 348
When to use interpretative phenomenological analysis 357
Examples of interpretative phenomenological analysis 357
Evaluation of interpretative phenomenological analysis 361
Conclusion 363
Key points 363
Additional resources 364
Chapter 14 Narrative analysis 365
Overview 365
What is narrative analysis? 366
The development of narrative analysis 372
How to do narrative analysis 376
When to use narrative analysis 382
Examples of narrative analysis 383
Evaluation of narrative analysis 386
Conclusion 387
Key points 388
Additional resources 388
Part 4 Planning and writing up qualitative research 389
Chapter 15 Writing a qualitative report 392
Overview 392
Is a qualitative research report different? 393
Where to aim: the overall characteristics of a good qualitative report 395
The qualitative ethos 396
The structure of a qualitative report 400
The qualitative report in detail 404
Conclusion 422
Key points 423
Additional resources 423
Chapter 16 Ensuring quality in qualitative research 424
Overview 424
How should qualitative research be evaluated? 425
Some quality criteria for quantitative research 427
Evaluating quality in qualitative research 429
General academic justification and features of the research 430
Generalisability in qualitative research 433
Validity in qualitative research 434
Reliability in qualitative research 441
Conclusion 446
Key points 446
Additional resources 447
Chapter 17 Ethics and data management in qualitative research 448
Overview 448
Does qualitative research need ethics? 449
The development of ethics in psychology 451
General ethical principles for qualitative research 454
Ethical procedures in qualitative research 456
Debriefing as ethics and methodology 471
The ethics of report writing and publication 472
Conclusion 475
Key points 476
Additional resources 477
Chapter 18 Examples of qualitative report writing: learning the good and bad points 478
Overview 478
Introduction 479
Examples of qualitative report writing 482
Conclusion 517
Key points 518
Additional resources 518
Glossary 519
References 541
Index 565