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The Collected Works of Ann Hawkshaw

The Collected Works of Ann Hawkshaw

Debbie Bark | Ann Hawkshaw


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‘The Collected Works of Ann Hawkshaw’ brings together Hawkshaw’s four volumes of poetry and republishes them for the first time. Debbie Bark’s biography, introduction and notes highlight Hawkshaw’s most significant poems and propose connections with more canonical works alongside which her writing can be productively viewed. Hawkshaw’s writings have been largely neglected since the early twentieth century, but this new volume reaffirms their ability to offer an exceptional insight into the changing political and religious landscape of the Victorian period.

‘The Collected Works of Ann Hawkshaw’ brings together Hawkshaw’s four volumes of poetry and republishes them together for the first time. Some two hundred years after her birth into a large family of Dissenters in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the publication of ‘The Collected Works’ reflects the growing interest in Hawkshaw’s poetry and life. As the span of three decades between the first and last examples of Hawkshaw’s writing suggests, her poetry offers an exceptional insight into the changing political and religious landscape of the mid-nineteenth century. The themes of death, religion, science, history and nation that run through Hawkshaw’s poetry demonstrate her capacity for extended critical thought, as she engages with subjects at the heart of nineteenth-century cultural and religious debates whilst challenging the work of established scholars and writers.

Writing in a strong, independent and perceptive voice, Hawkshaw makes a valuable contribution to the Manchester poetic revival of 1830s and 1840s, and to political debates over abolitionism and the Poor Law Amendment. Her defence of natural theology in light of scientific progress and her skilful use of the sonnet sequence to engage with nineteenth-century historiographies of the Anglo-Saxon period are also notable. Elsewhere, Hawkshaw draws on her experience as a mother to write tender and poignant elegies on childhood death, addressing several poems to her own children and grandchild.

As well as providing a biography of Hawkshaw, who was married to the leading Victorian engineer Sir John Hawkshaw and related by marriage to the Darwin-Wedgwood family, the editor’s introduction and notes draw attention to several of Hawkshaw’s most significant poems and their critical reception, making connections between her poetry and the work of Felicia Hemans, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Wordsworth, Gaskell and Pater. 

‘A reflective, witty and erudite writer, Ann Hawkshaw merits recognition for her wide-ranging and philosophical poetry and children’s verse. After more than a century of unmerited neglect, Bark’s comprehensive biographical and critical introduction and notes make Hawkshaw’s life and works fully accessible for modern readers.’ —Professor Florence Boos, University of Iowa

Ann Hawkshaw (1812–1885) was born into a large family of dissenters in rural Yorkshire and, by the time of her death, she was a titled, affluent poet moving amidst the most influential circles of the age.

Debbie Bark lectures on nineteenth-century studies in the Department of English Literature at the University of Reading. She has published a number of articles on Ann Hawkshaw which focus on situating the poet’s life and work in their literary and cultural context.

‘This superb edition brings Hawkshaw’s unique gifts into visibility. Exhaustive annotation illuminates her remarkable poems, and detailed archival work reveals for the first time Hawkshaw’s life of upward mobility in a vigorous dissenting culture.’ —Professor Isobel Armstrong, Birkbeck, University of London

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
The Collected Works of Ann Hawkshaw i
Title iii
Copyright iv
Contents v
Preface and Acknowledgements xi
Biographical Introduction xv
Introductory Stanzas 3
Dionysius, the Areopagite 6
Part I. 6
I. 6
II. 9
III. 10
IV. 13
V. 17
VI. 20
VII. 24
VIII. 25
IX. 27
X. 33
XI. 38
Part II. 43
I. 43
II. 46
III. 48
IV. 52
V. 56
Part III. 61
I. 61
II. 66
The Past 69
I. 69
II. 69
III. 70
IV. 70
V. 70
VI. 70
VII. 71
VIII. 71
IX. 71
X. 72
XI. 72
XII. 72
XIII. 72
XIV. 73
XV. 73
XVI. 73
XVII. 73
XIX. 74
XX. 74
XXI. 74
XXII. 75
XXIV. 75
XXV. 76
XXVI. 76
XXIX. 77
XXX. 77
XXXI. 77
The Future 77
I. 77
II. 78
III. 78
IV. 78
V. 78
VI. 79
VII. 79
VIII. 79
IX. 80
X. 80
XI. 80
XII. 80
XIII. 81
XIV. 81
XV 81
XVI. 81
XVII. 82
XIX. 82
XX. 82
XXI. 83
XXII. 83
XXIV. 83
XXV. 84
XXVI. 84
XXIX. 85
XXX. 85
Wild Flowers 85
The Welsh Bard’s Last Song 86
Spring to the Flowers 87
Sonnet—To America 88
Palestine 89
Land of my Fathers 90
To Fountain’s Abbey 90
To a Bereaved Father 91
The Exile Song 92
The Mother to her Starving Child 93
To—— on the Death of Three of her Children 95
To—— after the Death of her Daughter 96
Lines on a Friend lost at Sea 96
The Prophet’s Lament 97
Song 98
The Greek Girl’s Song 99
The Captive King 100
Why am I a Slave? 102
Sonnet to—— 103
Spring is Coming 110
Mary’s Wish 111
The Festival of the Last of October—Scene in the Time of the Druids 112
Common Things 114
The Little Wanderers 115
Part I.—The Resolve 115
Part II.—The Avalanche 118
Part III.—The Cave in the Mountains 122
The Wind 125
Scene in the Time of the Romans 126
The City Child’s Complaint 128
The First Spring Flowers 129
To Editha 130
Editha 131
The Oak Tree 132
I do not love the Night 134
Thinking and Dreaming 135
King Alfred and His Mother—a Scene in the Time of the Saxons 137
The Angel Friend 139
The Stream 140
The Poor Fly—for my little Harry 141
The Land of my Dreams 142
The History of a Coral Islet 143
The Hermit, the Chieftain, and the Child—a Tale about Happiness 145
God is Love 148
The Monk of Chester—a Scene in the Time of the Normans 149
A Talk in Furness Abbey.—to J.C.H 152
A Little Girl’s Wish 153
Sir Oswald’s Return—a Scene in the Time of the Crusades 155
Part I. 155
Part II. 158
Ada 164
Introductory. 171
I. The beginning. 173
II. Progress. 175
III. The Druids. 177
IV. The Romans. 179
V. Christianity. 181
VI. Christianity in Britain. 183
VII. Change. 185
VIII. The Saxons.—I. 187
IX. The Saxons.—II. 189
X. Saxon Mythology. 191
XI. Christianity received by the Saxons.—I. 193
XII. Christianity received by the Saxons.—II. 195
XIII. Merlin. 197
XIV. Ethelbert examining the Christian Doctrines. 199
XV. Ethelbert embraces Christianity 201
XVI. The great Edwin of Northumbria.—I. 203
XVII. Edwin of Northumbria.—II. 205
XVIII. The Thane Lilla saving Edwin.—III. 207
XIX. Caedmon the Anglo-Saxon Poet. 209
XX. The Chronicler. 211
XXI. The Venerable Bede.—I. 213
XXII. The Venerable Bede.—II. 215
XXIII. The death of Bede.—III. 217
XXIV. The Northmen. 219
XXV. Destruction of the Abbey of Peterborough by the Northmen. 221
XXVI. Under-Currents. 223
XXVII. The Serf. 225
XXVIII. The Serf Freed. 227
XXIX. Ina resigning his Crown. 229
XXX. The Pilgrim.—I. 231
XXXI. The Pilgrim.—II. 233
XXXII. The Pilgrim.—III. 235
XXXIII. Alfred of Northumbria.—I. Retirement. 237
XXXIV. Alfred of Northumbria.—II. Self-Reliance. 239
XXXV. The Monastery. 241
XXXVI. Ethelberga. 243
XXXVII. The benighted Ceorl. 245
XXXVIII. The Witena meeting at Easter. 247
XXXIX. The Markman’s Cottage.—I. 249
XL. The Markman’s Cottage.—II. 251
XLI. True Workers. 253
XLII. The Mother of Egbert. 255
XLIII. Egbert. 257
XLIV. Ethelwulph leaving the Cloister.—I. 259
XLV. Ethelwulph.—II. 261
XLVI. The Tomb of Ethelberga. 263
XLVII. Anglo-Saxon Patriots. 265
XLVIII. Alfred the Great.—I. The Child. 267
XLIX. Alfred the Great.—II. Remembrances. 269
L. Alfred the Great.—III. Adversity. 271
LI. Alfred the Great.—IV. Releasing the Wife and Children of Hastings the Northman. 273
LII. Alfred the Great.—V. Romney Marsh, Kent. 275
LIII. Denulf. 277
LIV. Woman.—I. Ethelfleda, the daughter of Alfred. 279
LV. Woman.—II. Ethelfleda. 281
LVI. Woman.—III. Ethelgiva the Nun. 283
LVII. The three Pilgrims. 285
LVIII. The Hero-King. 287
LIX. The Thane’s Fireside. 289
LX. The remorse of Athelstan. —I. 291
LXI. Athelstan.—II. 293
LXII. Edwy and Elfgiva. 295
LXIII. The Town. 297
LXIV. Disunion. 299
LXV. Dunstan.—I. The Boy. 301
LXVI.Dunstan.—II. The Dream. 303
LXVII.Dunstan.—III. The Youth’s aspirings. 305
LXVIII.Dunstan.—IV. The Trial. 307
LXIX.Dunstan.—V. Love. 309
LXX.Dunstan.—VI. The Fall. 311
LXXI.Dunstan.—VII. Nature’s Revenge. 313
LXXII.Dunstan.—VIII. Refusing to crown Ethelred. 315
LXXIII.Ethelred the Unready. 317
LXXIV.Massacre of the Danes. 319
LXXV.The Poet. 321
LXXVI.Edmund Ironside. 323
LXXVII.Canute the Great. 325
LXXVIII.The Forest. 327
LXXIX.Godwin.—I. Childhood. 329
LXXX.Godwin.—II. The meeting with Ulfr. 331
LXXXI. Godwin.—III. The Flight. 333
LXXXII. Godwin.—IV. The Earl. 335
LXXXIII. Godwin.—V. The Death-Feast. 337
LXXXIV. Sweyn, the Outlawed. 339
LXXXV. The Visit. 341
LXXXVI. Editha in the Monastery at Wherwell. 343
LXXXVII. Death-Shadowings.—I. Edward the Etheling. 345
LXXXVIII. Death-Shadowings.—II. Leofric. 347
LXXXIX. Death-Shadowings.—III. Leofric. 349
XC. Edward the Confessor.—I. 351
XCI. Edward the Confessor.—II. 353
XCII. The Eventide.—I. 355
XCIII. The Eventide.—II. 357
XCIV. Harold.—I. 359
XCV. Harold.—II. 361
XCVI. The Mother of Harold. 363
XCVII. Night after Battle. 365
XCVIII. The Anglo-Saxons. 367
Conclusion. 368
Part I. The Wonderful Adventures of Hassan the Younger, the Son of Hassan-el-Alfi the Camel Driver 371
The Selfish Toad 383
The Discontented Stream 387
Little Prince Bepettedbyall 390
The Noontide Dream 393
The Squirrel that forgot that it would be Winter A Story of Hollycombe in 1866 395
The Ambitious Water-Lily 398
The Fairy Gift; or, The Iron Bracelet 403
Part II. Change—not Death 417
Earth’s Waters 418
The Birds of Passage 420
Homes of the Flowers 420
In Memoriam 422
Appendix A 425
Appendix B 451
Bibliography 457
Index of Titles 461
Index of First Lines 465