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Atlas of Human Anatomy, Professional Edition

Atlas of Human Anatomy, Professional Edition

Frank H. Netter


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The 25th anniversary edition of Frank H. Netter, MD’s Atlas of Human Anatomy celebrates his unsurpassed depiction of the human body in clear, brilliant detail – all from a clinician’s perspective. With its emphasis on anatomic relationships and clinically relevant views, this user-friendly resource quickly became the #1 bestselling human anatomy atlas worldwide, and it continues to provide a coherent, lasting visual vocabulary for understanding anatomy and how it applies to medicine today. Dr. Netter brought the hand of a master medical illustrator, the brain of a physician and the soul of an artist to his illustrations of the human body, and his work continues to teach and inspire.

"One of the leading human anatomy textbooks has just turned 25 and it’s better than ever." Reviewed by Physiopedia, Apr 2015

  • View anatomy from a clinical perspective with hundreds of exquisite, hand-painted illustrations created by pre-eminent medical illustrator Frank H. Netter, MD.
  • Join the global community of healthcare professionals who rely on Netter to optimize learning and clarify even the most difficult aspects of human anatomy. Comprehensive labeling uses the international anatomic standard terminology, Terminologia Anatomica, and every aspect of the Atlas is reviewed and overseen by clinical anatomy and anatomy education experts. Consulting Editors include: John T. Hansen, PhD; Brion Benninger, MD, MS; Jennifer Brueckner-Collins, PhD, Todd M. Hoagland, PhD, and R. Shane Tubbs, MS, PA-C, PhD. 
  • Leverage the Netter "visual vocabulary" you learned in school to grasp complex clinical concepts at a glance.
  • Explore additional unique perspectives of difficult-to-visualize anatomy through all-new paintings by Dr. Carlos Machado, including breast lymph drainage; the pterygopalantine fossa; the middle ear; the path of the internal carotid artery; and the posterior knee, plus additional new plates on arteries of the limbs and new radiologic images.
  • Master challenging structures with visual region-by-region coverage -- including Muscle Table appendices at the end of each Section.
  • Access the full downloadable image bank of the current Atlas as well as additional Plates from previous editions and other bonus content at [*Your Registered User License allows for the creation of presentations for your individual, personal use which you can present in small group settings of 10 or fewer people. It also permits registered student users to include images in posters at scientific conferences as long as proper citation is included. Complete Registered User License as well as contact information for Institutional sales can be found at]

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front Cover cover
Bonus Plates IFC1
Front insert 1-2 IFC3
Marketing ads i
Atlas of Human Anatomy, 6/e iii
Copyright Page iv
Consulting Editors v
Contributing Medical Illustrator v
Editors of Previous Editions vi
International Advisory Board vi
Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy – Celebrating 25 Years vii
Photo for Frank H. Netter, MD viii
Dedication ix
Frank H. Netter, MD ix
Preface to the First Edition ix
Acknowledgments x
Table Of Contents xi
1 Head and Neck 1
Topographic Anatomy 5
Superficial Head and Neck 6
Bones and Ligaments 8
Superficial Face 28
Neck 30
Nasal Region 39
Oral Region 60
Pharynx 68
Thyroid Gland and Larynx 80
Orbit and Contents 87
Ear 98
Meninges and Brain 105
Cranial and Cervical Nerves 121
Cerebral Vasculature 141
Regional Scans 154
2 Back and Spinal Cord 163
Topographic Anatomy 165
Bones and Ligaments 166
Spinal Cord 173
Muscles and Nerves 184
Cross-Sectional Anatomy 189
3 Thorax 193
Topographic Anatomy 195
Mammary Gland 196
Body Wall 200
Lungs 210
Heart 225
Mediastinum 244
Regional Scans 254
Cross-Sectional Anatomy 255
4 Abdomen 261
Topographic Anatomy 265
Body Wall 266
Peritoneal Cavity 286
Viscera (Gut) 292
Viscera (Accessory Organs) 300
Visceral Vasculature 306
Innervation 320
Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands 332
Sectional Anatomy 345
Cross-Sectional Anatomy 348
5 Pelvis and Perineum 355
Topographic Anatomy 359
Bones and Ligaments 360
Pelvic Floor and Contents 365
Urinary Bladder 376
Uterus, Vagina, and Supporting Structures 379
Perineum and External Genitalia: Female 384
Perineum and External Genitalia: Male 388
Homologues of Genitalia 396
Testis, Epididymis, and Ductus Deferens 398
Rectum 399
Regional Scans 405
Vasculature 406
Innervation 417
Cross-Sectional Anatomy 426
6 Upper Limb 431
Topographic Anatomy 433
Cutaneous Anatomy 434
Shoulder and Axilla 439
Arm 452
Elbow and Forearm 457
Wrist and Hand 474
Neurovasculature 494
Regional Scans 502
7 Lower Limb 507
Topographic Anatomy 509
Cutaneous Anatomy 510
Hip and Thigh 514
Knee 534
Leg 541
Ankle and Foot 552
Neurovasculature 566
Regional Scans 571
1 Head and Neck Study Guide e1
1.1 Topographic Surface Anatomy e1
Guide e1
Key Landmarks of Midline of the Neck e1
Other Landmarks of the Neck e1
Landmarks of the Face e2
Clinical Points e2
Tracheostomy e2
Needle Cricothyrotomy e2
Central Venous Line e2
1.2 Bones and Ligaments e2
Guide e2
Bones of Head and Neck e2
Skull e2
Major Sutures of the Skull. e3
Internal Features of Base of Skull. e3
Foramina of Skull. e3
Mandible e4
Temporomandibular Joint e4
Cervical Vertebrae e5
Anatomical Points e5
Clinical Points e5
Skull (Calvaria) Fractures e5
Le Fort Fractures e5
Memory Aids e5
1.3 Superficial Face e6
Guide e6
Face e6
Scalp e6
Vascular Supply of the Face e7
Arteries. e7
Veins. e7
Lymphatic Drainage of the Face e7
Innervation of the Face e7
Other Muscles Associated with the Face: Muscles of Mastication e8
Clinical Points e8
Scalp Lacerations e8
Blood or Infections in the Scalp e8
Facial Palsy (Bell’s Palsy) e9
Memory Aids e9
1.4 Neck e9
Guide e9
Neck—General Description e9
Triangles of the Neck e9
Fascial Layers of Neck e10
Carotid Sheath e10
Facial Spaces e11
Anatomical Points e11
Clinical Points e11
Torticollis e11
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome e11
Memory Aids e11
1.5 Nasal Region e11
Guide e11
Nasal Region e11
External Nose e11
Nasal Septum e12
Nasal Cavity e12
Paranasal Sinuses e12
Clinical Points e13
Nasal Obstruction e13
Epistaxis e13
Sinusitis e13
Memory Aids e13
1.6 Oral Region e13
Guide e13
Oral Cavity e13
Tongue e14
Palate e15
Salivary Glands e16
Clinical Points e17
Parotid Tumors e17
Sialoadenitis e17
Sialolithiasis e17
Memory Aids e17
1.7 Pharynx e17
Guide e17
Pharynx: General Anatomy e17
Muscles of Pharynx e18
Arterial Supply e19
Venous Drainage e19
Lymphatic Drainage e19
Innervation e19
Swallowing (Deglutition) e20
Anatomical Points e20
Clinical Points e20
Pharyngitis e20
Tonsillectomy e20
1.8 Larynx and Thyroid Gland e20
Guide e20
Larynx: General Anatomy e20
Laryngeal Skeleton e20
Membranes of Laryngeal Skeleton. e21
Internal Anatomy of the Larynx e21
Muscles of the Larynx e21
Joints of the Larynx and Movements at the Joints e22
Arterial Supply to Larynx e22
Venous Drainage of Larynx e22
Lymphatic Drainage of Larynx e22
Innervation of Larynx e22
Thyroid Gland e22
Innervation e22
Arterial Supply e22
Venous Drainage e23
Lymphatic Drainage e23
Innervation e23
Parathyroid Gland e23
Clinical Points e23
Severance of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve e23
Thyroid Lumps e23
Hyperthyroidism e23
Mnemonics e23
1.9 Orbit and Contents e23
Guide e24
Bony Orbit e24
Eyelids and Lacrimal Apparatus e24
Eyelids e24
Lacrimal Apparatus e24
Contents of the Orbit e25
Eyeball e25
Light refraction. e25
Muscles of the Orbit e26
Vasculature of the Orbit e27
Innervation of the Orbit e27
Clinical Points e27
General Testing of Extra-Ocular Muscles e27
Cataract e28
Glaucoma e28
Orbital “Blow-Out” Fractures e28
Conjunctivitis e28
Memory Aids e28
1.10 Ear e28
Guide e28
Ear—Overview e28
External Ear e28
Middle Ear e29
Inner Ear e30
Clinical Points e30
Otitis Externa e30
Otitis Media e31
Weber Test and Rinne Test for Hearing e31
Weber Test e31
Rinne Test e31
1.11 Brain and Meninges e31
Guide e31
Brain e31
Brainstem e31
Arterial Supply to the Brain e32
Meninges e32
Venous Drainage of Brain e32
Dural Infoldings e32
Dural Venous Sinuses e32
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) e33
Vasculature of Dura e33
Clinical Points e34
Meningitis e34
Hydrocephalus e34
Brain Tumors e34
1.12 Cranial and Cervical Nerves e34
Guide e34
Cranial Nerves e34
Sensory Innervation of the Dura e35
Cervical Plexus e35
Clinical Points e36
Facial Nerve Palsy e36
Trigeminal Neuralgia e36
Ocular Nerve Palsy e36
Memory Aids e36
1.13 Cerebral Vasculature e37
Guide e37
Vascular Supply to the Brain e37
Arterial Supply e37
Internal Carotid Arteries. e37
Vertebral Arteries. e37
Cerebral Arteries. e37
Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circle of Willis). e37
Venous Drainage e37
Vascular Supply to Scalp, Face, and Neck e38
Arterial Supply e38
Common Carotid Artery. e38
External Carotid Artery. e38
Subclavian Artery. e38
Venous Drainage e39
Superficial Veins. e39
Deep Veins. e39
Lymphatic Drainage e39
Drainage of Face and Head. e39
Drainage of Neck. e39
Deep Cervical Nodes. e39
Jugular Lymphatic Trunks. e39
Clinical Points e39
Stroke e39
Berry Aneurysm e39
2 Back and Spinal Cord Study Guide e40
2.1 Topographic Anatomy e40
Guide e40
Clinical Points e40
Lumbar Puncture e40
Memory Aids e40
2.2 Bones and Ligaments e41
Guide e41
Vertebral Column e41
Vertebrae e41
Cervical Vertebrae e41
Thoracic Vertebrae e41
Lumbar Vertebrae e41
Sacrum (Sacral Vertebrae) e41
Coccyx (Coccygeal Vertebrae) e41
Joints e42
Clinical Points e42
Types of Vertebral Fractures e42
Cervical Hyperextension e42
Spinal Curvatures e42
Abnormal Curvatures e42
Kyphosis. e42
Spondylolisthesis. e42
Sacralization. e42
Memory Aids e43
2.3 Spinal Cord e43
Guide e43
Spinal Cord—Overview e43
Structure of Spinal Nerves e43
Meninges e43
Dermatomes e43
Vasculature of Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column e44
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) e44
Clinical Points e44
Disc Herniation e44
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis e44
Spinal Cord Development e44
Epidural Block e45
Spinal Block e45
Memory Aids e45
2.4 Muscles and Nerves e45
Guide e45
Extrinsic Muscles of the Back e45
Intrinsic Muscles of the Back e46
Fascia e47
Vascular Supply to Muscles and Skin of the Back e47
Suboccipital Region e47
Branches of Spinal Nerves e48
Clinical Points e48
Back Pain e48
Back Strain e48
Whiplash e48
Memory Aids e48
3 Thorax Study Guide e49
3.1 Topographic Anatomy e49
4 Abdomen Study Guide e62
4.1 Topographic Anatomy e62
Guide e62
Abdomen—Overview e62
Bony Landmarks of the Abdomen e62
Abdominal Contents e63
Abdominal Quadrants and Regions e63
Clinical Points e64
Mcburney’s Point and Appendicitis e64
Grey-Turner’s Sign e64
Cullen’s Sign e64
Memory Aids e64
4.2 Body Wall e64
Guide e64
Anterolateral Abdominal Wall e64
Fascial Layers e64
Muscles e64
Rectus Sheath e65
Innervation e65
Vascular Supply e65
Posterior Abdominal Wall e66
Fascial Layers e66
Muscles e66
Arteries of Posterior Abdominal Wall (see Section 4.6, Abdomen—Visceral Vasculature) e67
Veins of Posterior Abdominal Wall (see Section 4.6, Abdomen—Visceral Vasculature) e67
Lymphatics of Posterior Abdominal Wall e67
Nerves of Posterior Abdominal Wall (see Section 4.7, Abdomen—Innervation) e67
Internal Features of Anterior Abdominal Wall e68
Hesselbach’s (Inguinal) Triangle. e68
Inguinal Canal: Feature of Anterior Abdominal Wall. e68
Clinical Points e68
Inguinal Hernia e68
Psoas Abscess e68
Memory Aids e69
4.3 Peritoneal Cavity e69
Guide e69
Peritoneum e69
Omenta e69
Mesenteries e69
Peritoneal Ligaments e69
Peritoneal Subdivisions e70
Anatomical Points e70
Clinical Points e70
Peritonitis e70
Ascites e70
4.4 Viscera (Gut) e70
Guide e70
Stomach e70
5 Pelvis and Perineum Study Guide e82
5.1 Topographic Anatomy e82
Guide e82
Functions of the Pelvic Girdle e82
Key Landmarks e82
Clinical Points e82
Pregnancy e82
Acute Urinary Retention e82
Supracristal Line e82
Pilonidal Sinus e82
5.2 Bones and Ligaments e82
Guide e83
Bones and Boundaries of the Pelvis e83
Bony Pelvis e83
Pelvic Walls e83
Pelvic Cavity e83
Pelvic Inlet, Outlet, and Brim e83
Joints of the Pelvis e83
Lumbosacral Joints e83
Sacro-iliac Joint e83
Pubic Symphysis e83
Sacrococcygeal Joint e83
Ligaments of the Pelvis e83
Sex Differences of Pelvis e84
Anatomical Points e84
Measurements of the Pelvic Inlet e84
Clinical Points e84
Fractures of the Pelvis e84
Decubitus Ulcers e84
5.3 Pelvic Floor and Contents e84
Guide e84
Pelvic Floor e84
Muscles of Pelvic Floor e85
Muscles Lining Lateral Walls of Pelvis e85
Pelvic Fascia e86
Pelvic Contents e86
Clinical Points e86
Peritoneal Reflections e86
5.4 Urinary Bladder e86
Guide e86
Ureters e86
Urinary Bladder e86
General Structure e86
Arterial Supply e87
Venous Drainage e87
Female Urethra e87
Male Urethra e87
Clinical Points e88
Micturition e88
Fractures of Pelvis and Bladder Injury e88
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) e88
Urinary Stress Incontinence e88
Memory Aids e88
5.5 Uterus, Vagina, and Supporting Structures e88
Guide e88
Structures e88
Uterus e88
Basic Structure. e88
Relationships of the Uterus. e88
Vascular Supply of Uterus (Including Cervix). e89
6 Upper Limb Study Guide e103
6.1 Topographic Anatomy e103
Guide e103
Bones e103
Muscles and Tendons e103
Arteries and Veins e103
Nerves e103
Anatomical Points e103
Functional Overview e103
Upper Limb Development e103
Clinical Points e104
Winged Scapula e104
6.2 Shoulder and Axilla e104
Guide e104
Bones e104
Joints e104
Bursae (Important Ones) e105
Muscles of the Scapula e105
Axilla e107
Clinical Points e107
Fracture of the Clavicle e107
Calcific Supraspinatus Tendonitis e107
Shoulder Dislocation e107
Rotator Cuff Injury e107
Memory Aids e107
6.3 Arm e108
Guide e108
Humerus e108
Fascia of the Arm e108
Muscles of the Arm e108
Cutaneous Nerves of Arm e109
Cubital Fossa e109
Clinical Points e109
Fracture of the Humerus e109
Biceps Tendonitis e109
Rupture of the Biceps Brachii e109
Memory Aids e109
6.4 Elbow and Forearm e110
Guide e110
Bones e110
Ulna e110
Radius e110
Elbow Joint e110
Fascial Compartments of Forearm e111
Muscles of the Forearm (Listed from Lateral to Medial) e111
Clinical Points e113
Subluxation of Radial Head (Nursemaid Elbow) e113
Bursitis of the Elbow e113
Epicondylitis e113
Memory Aids e113
6.5 Wrist and Hand e113
Guide e114
Wrist (Radiocarpal) Joint e114
Hand e114
Bones (27). e114
Major Joints of the Hand e114
Fascia of the Hand e114
Muscles of the Hand e114
Anatomical Points e116
Arterial Arches of the Hand e116
Anatomical Snuff Box e116
Clinical Points e116
Colles’ Fracture e116
Scaphoid Fracture e116
Dupuytren’s Contracture e116
Memory Aids e116
6.6 Neurovasculature e116
Guide e117
Vascular Supply to the Upper Limb e117
Arterial Supply to the Arm e117
Axillary Artery. e117
Brachial Artery. e117
Profunda Brachii (Deep Artery of the Arm). e117
Arterial Supply to the Forearm e117
Ulnar Artery. e117
Radial Artery. e117
Arterial Supply to the Hand e117
Branches from the Ulnar Artery. e117
Venous Drainage of Hand and Forearm e117
Venous Drainage of Arm e117
Superficial Veins (Drain into Axillary Vein). e117
Deep Veins e117
Lymphatics e118
Innervation to Upper Limb e118
Brachial Plexus [C5–T1] e118
Dermatomes and Cutaneous Innervation of the Upper Limb e118
Clinical Points e119
Brachial Plexus Injury e119
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome e119
Ulnar Nerve Injury e119
Radial Nerve Injury e119
Memory Aids e119
7 Lower Limb Study Guide e120
7.1 Topographic Anatomy e120
Guide e120
Bony Landmarks e120
Muscles and Tendons e120
Vessels e120
Other Palpable Landmarks e120
Anatomical Points e121
Functional Overview of the Lower Limb e121
Lower Limb Development e121
Clinical Points e121
Varicose Veins e121
7.2 Hip and Thigh e121
Guide e121
Hip Joint e121
Femur e121
Fascial Compartments of the Thigh e122
Muscles of the Gluteal Region e122
Muscles of the Thigh e123
Femoral Triangle e125
Adductor Canal (= Subsartorial Canal/Hunter’s Canal) e125
Anatomical Points e125
Hip Joint e125
Clinical Points e125
Femoral Hernia e125
Fractured Neck of Femur (“Broken Hip”) e126
Memory Aids e126
7.3 Knee e126
Guide e126
Knee Joint e126
Bones Articulating in the Knee Joint e126
Ligaments Reinforcing Fibrous Capsule e126
Bursae Around the Knee Joint e127
Popliteal Fossa e127
Clinical Points e127
Baker’s Cyst e127
Bursitis e128
Knee Injury e128
Memory Aids e128
7.4 Leg e128
Guide e128
Bones e128
Fascial Compartments e128
Joints e128
Muscles e128
Clinical Points e130
Compartment Syndrome e130
Shin Splints (Tibialis Anterior Strain) e130
Ruptured Achilles Tendon e130
Memory Aids e131
7.5 Ankle and Foot e131
Guide e131
Ankle Joint (Talocrural Joint) e131
Foot e131
Bones e131
Joints e132
Arches e132
Ligaments (Major Ligaments Listed) e132
Plantar Muscles e132
Dorsal Muscles of Foot e134
Fascia e134
Clinical Points e134
Ankle Sprain e134
Ankle Fracture e134
Plantar Fasciitis e134
Memory Aids e134
7.6 Neurovasculature e134
Guide e134
Vascular Supply: Arteries e134
Vascular Supply: Veins e135
Lymphatics e135
Nerves e136
Dermatomes e136
Myotomes e136
Clinical Points e137
Chronic Arterial Occlusive Disease e137
Footdrop e137
Meralgia Paresthetica (Gunslinger’s Neuralgia) e137
Memory Aids e137
References 577
Plates 8, 36-38, 43-45 577
Plates 19-21 577
Plate 23 577
Plates 25, 27-29, 48, 49, 58, 67, 70 577
Plates 32, 34, 126-132 577
Plate 48 577
Plates 50, 58 577
Plates 57, 62 577
Plates 65, 95, 96 577
Plates 74, 75 577
Plates 80-82 577
Plates 102-116 577
Plates 105, 141 577
Plates 117-119, 125 577
Plates 160, 175 577
Plate 162 577
Plates 162, 399, 469, 513 577
Plate 168 577
Plate 169 577
Plates 174, 175 577
Plates 179-181 577
Plates 197, 198 577
Plate 200 578
Plate 215 578
Plates 215, 216 578
Plate 222 578
Plates 222-224 578
Plate 236 578
Plate 279 578
Plates 283, 284 578
Plate 305 578
Plates 321, 344, 362, 374, 392 578
Plates 335, 340, 346, 350, 355, 356 578
Plates 339, 344 578
Plates 339, 344, 361, 362 578
Plate 381 578
Plate 399 578
Plate 469 578
Index I-1
A I-1
B I-4
C I-5
D I-9
E I-10
F I-11
G I-13
H I-14
I I-15
J I-18
K I-18
L I-18
M I-21
N I-23
O I-24
P I-25
Q I-30
R I-30
S I-31
T I-36
U I-40
V I-41
W I-42
X I-43
Z I-43
Hansen_sample_pages 623
Back insert 1-2 IBC1
Inside Front Cover ifc1
Endsheet 3 IBC4
Endsheet 5 IBC5
Netter’s Online Dissection Modules by UNC at Chapel Hill IBC6
Head & Neck IBC6
Back & Spinal Cord IBC6
Thorax IBC6
Abdomen IBC7
Pelvis & Perineum IBC7
Upper Limb IBC7
Lower Limb IBC7