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Promoting Income Security as a Right

Promoting Income Security as a Right

Guy Standing


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This book is about an idea that has a long and distinguished pedigree, the idea of a right to a basic income. This means having a modest income guaranteed – a right without conditions, just as every citizen should have the right to clean water, fresh air and a good education. In modern societies the conditions for moving in this direction would seem to be falling into place. Yet in the era of globalization and flexible labour relations, inequalities and insecurities can be expected to remain pervasive. The early years of the 21st century have seen the supremacy of politicians who have preached a very paternalistic alternative vision. The past decade has been one of increased state intervention in social policy; it has been the period of the erosion of industrial citizenship rights whose immediate effect has been a terrible increase in social and economic insecurity.

The case for and against the right to basic income security is considered in this book. It argues that there should be a guaranteed basic income as a citizenship right, paid to each individual, regardless of marital status, work status, age or sex. Some chapters argue that existing selective schemes for income protection are ineffectual, costly and misleading; other chapters present alternative rationales and philosophical justifications for moving towards a new form of universalism based on citizenship economic rights. 'Promoting Income Security as a Right', whose contributors include many distinguished economists, philosophers and other social scientists from across Europe and the USA, will appeal to academics and policymakers alike.

This book is about an idea that has a long and distinguished pedigree, the idea of a right to a basic income. This means having a modest income guaranteed – a right without conditions, just as every citizen should have the right to clean water, fresh air and a good education.

'Highly Recommended: The unique breadth of positions expressed and the multidisciplinary nature of the arguments make this book unique' —'Choice'

'The 34 essays in this book contain a mass of fascinating material into which anyone interested in Basic Income, whether in favour or against or agnostic, would do well to dip.' Samuel Brittan, —'Citizen's Income Newsletter'

Guy Standing is Director of the Socio-Economic Security Programme of the International Labour Organization. He is Chairman of the Basic Income European Network (BIEN). He has written and edited numerous books, including 'Beyond the New Paternalism: Basic Security as Equality' (Verso, 2002) and 'Global Labour Flexibility: Seeking Distributive Justice' (Macmillan, 1999).

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front Matter 1
Half Title iii
Copyright iv
Table of Contents v
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xi
Main Matter xiii
Introduction, by Guy Standing xiii
The Ninth BIEN Congress xv
Notes xx
References xx
Section 1: Basic Income as a Right xxi
Chapter 1: About time: Basic income security as a right, by Guy Standing xxi
1. A Vision: Basic Income Security and 'Decent Work' xxi
2. The Context xxv
3. About Time xxviii
4. A Future Somewhere: Towards a New 'Social Contract' xxxii
5. The Options: Alternatives to Basic Income xxxv
6. Basic Income: A Definition and Antecedents xxxvii
7. Popular Attitudes xxxviii
8. Moving Towards Basic Income Security xxxix
9. Paying for a Basic Income xlii
10. Capital Grants Versus Citizenship Income xliii
11. Towards a New 'Social Contract' liii
12. An Afterword - Legitimizing, Lobbying liv
Notes lv
References lviii
Chapter 2: How basic income is moving up the policy agenda: News from the future, by Anthony Atkinson lxi
1. Introduction lxi
2. The Inexorable Rise of In-work Benefits lxii
3. Crumbling Pension Pillars lxvi
4. Taking Social Europe Seriously lxviii
5. What Have we Learned? lxxi
Notes lxxi
References lxxi
Chapter 3: Can there be a right to a basic income? by Raymond Plant lxxiii
1. Introduction lxxiii
2. Rights and Liberty lxxiii
3. Rights, Scarcity and Obligation lxxviii
4. Rights and Needs lxxxiv
Notes lxxxvii
References lxxxvii
Chapter 4: Wasteful welfare transactions: Why basic income security is fundamental, by Claus Offe lxxxix
1. Introduction lxxxix
2. Micro-transactions: The Administration of Welfare xci
3. Macro-Transactions: Making and Revising Welfare Policy xcii
4. The Meso-Level: The Costs of Running Workfare Programmes xcix
5. Conclusion c
Notes cii
Chapter 5: Migration, citizenship and welfare state reform in Europe: Overcoming marginalization in segregated labour markets, by Roswitha Pioch ciii
1. Migration and Basic Income ciii
2. European Integration and International Mobility civ
3. Migration and Social Policy in Europe cviii
4. Overcoming Segregated Labour Markets cxi
Note cxiii
References cxiii
Chapter 6: The liberal's dilemma: Immigration, social solidarity and basic income, by Ron Dore cxvii
1. Introduction cxvii
2. Why Social Solidarity Counts cxvii
3. Why a Continuing Growth in Wage Subsidies? cxvii
4. Why a Growth in Benefit Fraud? cxviii
5. Why should Wage Subsidies and Fraud Lead to a Basic Income? cxviii
6. A Paradox cxviii
7. Questions for Social Scientists cxix
8. Rights and Duties cxix
9. Questions for Liberals cxix
Note cxix
Section 2: Rationales for Basic Income cxxi
Chapter 7: The psychological rationale for basic income, by Rosamund Stock cxxi
1. Introduction cxxi
2. The Psychology of Distributions cxxi
3. Basic Income in Relation to Equality or Need cxxiii
4. The National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom cxxiv
Note cxxv
References cxxv
Chapter 8: The limits of production: Justifying guaranteed basic income, by Sibyl Schwarzenbach cxxvii
1. Introduction cxxvii
2. The Production Model cxxviii
3. Ethical Reproduction cxxix
4. The New State cxxxi
Notes cxxxiii
References cxxxiv
Chapter 9: Liberal and Marxist justifications for basic income, by Michael Howard cxxxv
1. Marxist Arguments for and Against Basic Income cxxxv
2. Basic Income and Liberal Neutrality cxlii
3. Neutrality, Work and Leisure cxliii
Notes cxlvii
References cxlviii
Chapter 10: Basic income, commons and commodities: The public domain revisited, by Michael Kratke cli
1. Basic Income as a Right - To What and for Whom? cli
2. Poverty Traps, Unemployment Traps - and Beyond cliv
3. The Concept of Poverty - An Exercise in Interdisciplinarity clvii
4. Welfare States and the Provision of Public Goods clix
5. The Importance of a Public Domain clx
6. Rediscovering the Commons - Rethinking Economic Governance clxiii
Note clxv
References clxv
Chapter 11: 'Calling': A Christian argument for basic income, by Torsten Meireis clxvii
1. Introduction clxvii
2. Calling, Office and Status - Luther's Ethical Thought in Context clxviii
3. Reception as Interpretation clxxi
4. A Heuristic Concept of 'Work' clxxiv
5. 'Calling' as Motivating a Christian Argument for a Basic Income clxxvi
Notes clxxix
References clxxxi
Chapter 12: Social credit as economic modernism: Seven theses, by Alan Dyer clxxxv
1. Thesis One: Social Credit, Economic Democracy and the Self clxxxv
2. Thesis Two: Economic Modernism clxxxvi
3. Thesis Three: Pragmatism and the Problem of the Self clxxxix
4. Thesis Four: James on Truth, Belief and Action cxc
5. Thesis Five: Williams and the Problem of 'Measure' cxciii
6. Thesis Six: A Poetic 'Measure' of Social Credit cxcvi
7. Thesis Seven: Conclusion cxcviii
Notes cxcix
References cxcix
Chapter 13: Deliberative democracy and the legitimacy of basic income, by Jorn Loftager cci
1. Introduction cci
2. Deliberative Democracy ccii
3. Socio-economic Conditions of Deliberative Democracy ccv
4. The New Third Way of Activation ccviii
5. Concluding Remarks: Beyond the (New) Third Way? ccxiii
Note ccxiv
References ccxiv
Section 3: Legitimizing Basic Income Politically ccxvii
Chapter 14: Mobilizing support for basic income, by Steven Shafarman ccxvii
1. Introduction ccxvii
2. Formulating the Idea ccxviii
3. Attracting People's Attention ccxviii
4. Educating Potential Supporters ccxx
5. Organizing Allies ccxxi
6. Pressuring Politicians ccxxiii
7. Citizen Policies ccxxiv
8. Transforming Politics ccxxv
9. Moving Forward ccxxvii
Note ccxxviii
References ccxxviii
Recommended ccxxviii
Chapter 15: A legitimate guaranteed minimum income? by Stefan Liebig and Steffen Mau ccxxix
1. Introduction ccxxix
2. The Guaranteed Minimum Income and Justice Attitudes ccxxxii
3. The Evaluation of the Guaranteed Minimum Income ccxxxiv
4. Discussion of the Empirical Findings ccxlv
Notes ccxlvii
References ccxlviii
Chapter 16: Republicanism and basic income: The articulation of the public sphere from the repoliticization of the private sphere, by Daniel Raventos and David Casassas ccli
1. Introduction ccli
2. Civic Virtue and Property in Republicanism ccliii
3. Republicanism, a Theory of Freedom and Government cclviii
4. Basic Income and Republican Freedom as Non-Domination cclxiii
Notes cclxxi
References cclxxii
Chapter 17: Working poor in Europe: A partial basic income for workers? by Wolfgang Strengmann-Kuhn cclxxv
1. Introduction cclxxv
2. The Working Poor in Europe cclxxv
3. A Partial Basic Income for Workers? cclxxxiv
4. Conclusion: A Partial Basic Income - Not Only for Workers? cclxxxviii
Note cclxxxix
References cclxxxix
Chapter 18: Basic income, social polarization and the right to work, by Jose Noguera and Daniel Raventos ccxciii
1. Introduction: Two Classic Objections to Basic Income and Two Kinds of Conditional Benefit ccxciii
2. The Concept of Social Polarization ccxcv
3. Basic Income and Social Polarization in the Distribution of Income ccxcvii
4. Basic Income and the 'Right to Work' ccxcix
5. Conclusion: Should we Fight Social Polarization? ccciv
Notes cccvi
References cccvii
Chapter 19: Popular support for basic income in Sweden and Finland, by Jan Otto Andersson and Olli Kangas cccix
1. Introduction cccix
2. The Questionnaire cccx
3. A Survey of the Results cccxii
4. Explaining Attitudes Toward Basic Income cccxviii
Notes cccxx
References cccxx
Chapter 20: The principle of universalism: Tracing a key idea in the Scandinavian welfare model, by Nanna Kildal and Stein Kuhnle cccxxiii
1. Introductory Questions cccxxiii
2. The Conception of a Scandinavian (Welfare) Model cccxxiv
3. What is Universalism? cccxxvi
4. Universal Welfare - When? cccxxix
5. Why Universal Welfare? cccxxxii
6. Welfare Reforms of the 1990s: quo vadis Universalism? cccxxxix
7. Concluding Remarks cccxli
Notes cccxlii
References cccxliv
Chapter 21: Women's politics and social policy in Austria, by Sabine Stadler cccxlvii
1. Introduction cccxlvii
2. Austrian Social Policy Under the Conservative Populist Government cccli
4. The Abolition of the Prohibition on Night-Work by Women ccclv
Note ccclv
References ccclvi
Chapter 22: Bio-economics, labour flexibility and cognitive work: Why not basic income? by Andrea Fumagalli ccclvii
1. Introduction ccclvii
2. The Solvability of the Labour Market Exchange ccclviii
3. Is the Labour Market a Free Market? ccclix
4. Rivalry in the Labour Market Exchange ccclx
5. Manual and Intellectual Labour (excursus) ccclxii
6. Production of Money by Means of Knowledge ccclxiv
7. First Conclusion ccclxvi
8. Second Conclusion: Why not Basic Income? ccclxvii
Notes ccclxix
References ccclxx
Chapter 23: Exploring ways to reconcile flexible employment with social protection, by Pascale Vielle and Pierre Walthery ccclxxi
1. Introduction ccclxxi
2. Security and Insecurity ccclxxiii
3. Prospects for Security and Capability ccclxxv
Notes ccclxxviii
References ccclxxix
Section 4: Building Towards Basic Income ccclxxxiii
Chapter 24: On a path to just distribution: the caregiver credit campaign, by Theresa Funiciello ccclxxxiii
1. Caregiver Credit Campaign Briefing ccclxxxiii
2. Fundamentals ccclxxxiv
3. Three Practical Goals ccclxxxv
4. Advantages of the Caregiver Credit ccclxxxvi
5. Next Steps ccclxxxvi
6. Observations ccclxxxvii
Note ccclxxxviii
Chapter 25: A care-worker allowance for Germany, by Michael Opielka ccclxxxix
1. Introduction ccclxxxix
2. Germany - A Family Laboratory cccxci
3. The Political Parties: Women's Employment and Childcare Allowances cccxciv
4. Carework Salary as Guaranteed Minimum Income? cd
Notes cdi
References cdii
Chapter 26: Feminist arguments in favour of welfare and basic income in Denmark, by Erik Christensen cdv
1. Introduction cdv
2. Towards a New Breadwinner Model - But Which One? cdvi
3. The Danish Debate on Leave Schemes and Equality Between Work and Care cdviii
4. Deconstructing Some Gender-political Dilemmas cdix
5. Nancy Fraser's Redefinition of and Solution to the Gender-Political Dilemmas in the Welfare State cdxiv
6. Overtures to a Feminist Basic Income Discussion in Denmark cdxvii
7. Conclusion cdxxii
Note cdxxiii
References cdxxiv
Chapter 27: Public support for basic income schemes and a universal right to health care: What the French people think, by Christine le Clainche cdxxvii
1. Introduction cdxxvii
2. Data Set and Methodology cdxxviii
3. Results and Comments cdxxxi
4. Conclusion cdxlvi
Appendix. Description of the Data Set cdxlvii
Notes cdl
References cdli
Chapter 28: Activation of minimum income and basic income: History of a comparison of two ideas, by Gianluca Busilacchi cdliii
1. Basic Income and Selective Measures: Contrast or Co-existence? cdliii
2. Which Minimum? History of Ideas on the Need for an Unconditional Basic Income cdlv
3. Unconditional Incomes cdlviii
4. Activation Policies and Guaranteed Minimum Income (GMI): Implementation cdlxiv
5. Conditional incomes cdlxvi
6. A Comparison of the Efficiency of Basic Income and Guaranteed Minimum Income cdlxxiv
7. Basic Income: A Utopia Which can Come True cdlxxviii
Notes cdlxxxi
References cdlxxxiv
National and Regional Initiatives cdlxxxvii
Chapter 29: The universal grant and income support in Spain and the Basque country, by Luis Sanzo-Gonzalez cdlxxxvii
1. Introduction cdlxxxvii
2. Traditional Income Support Systems cdlxxxvii
3. The Characteristics of an Alternative to Income Support that would be Based on the Model of a Universal Grant cdxc
Conclusion d
Notes di
References dii
Chapter 30: The impact of basic income on the propensity to work: Theoretical gambles and microeconometric findings, by Claude Gamel, Didier Balsan and Josiane Vero diii
1. Introduction diii
2. Theoretical Uncertainties Surrounding Changes in Behaviour dvi
3. Young Adults' Responses Regarding Basic Income dxii
4. Conclusion dxviii
Appendix 1. CEREQ's 'Youth Measures' Panel Survey (1994-2000) dxix
Appendix 2. The Supplementary Survey on Basic Income (2000) dxx
Notes dxxi
References dxxii
Chapter 31: A failure to communicate: The labour market findings of the negative income tax experiments and their effects on policy and public opinion, by Karl Widerquist dxxiii
1. Introduction dxxiii
2. The Experiments dxxiv
3. The Work Disincentive Results of the Experiments dxxix
4. What the Experiments Could not Measure dxxxii
5. Political and Media Perceptions of the Experiments dxxxviii
6. Conclusions dxli
Notes dxlii
References A: A Sampling of Non-Academic Articles on the NIT Experiments dxlii
References B: Academic Articles on the NIT Experiments dxliv
Chapter 32: Basic income and the means to self-govern, by Simon Wigley dlxiii
1. Basic Income and the Right to Self-Government dlxiii
2. The Fair Value of the Political Liberties dlxv
3. Redistributing the Worth of the Political Liberties dlxvi
4. From Economic Citizenship to Democratic Citizenship dlxviii
Notes dlxix
References dlxxi
Chapter 33: The Alaska permanent fund dividend: An experiment in wealth distribution, by Scott Goldsmith dlxxiii
1. Introduction dlxxiii
2. The Alaska Permanent Fund dlxxiii
3. The Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Programme dlxxv
4. Economic Effects of the Permanent Fund Dividend dlxxviii
5. Social and Political Effects of the Permanent Fund Dividend dlxxxi
6. The Future of the Permanent Fund Dividend dlxxxii
7. What Can the Basic Income Movement Learn from the Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend? dlxxxiii
Notes dlxxxvi
Chapter 34: Social citizenship and workfare in the United States and Western Europe: From status to contract, by Joel Handler dlxxxvii
1. Introduction dlxxxvii
2. Social Citizenship dlxxxix
3. The American Welfare Reform dxciv
4. Workfare in Western Europe dci
5. Contracts in Bureaucratic Relationships dcxii
6. Those Who Remain dcxv
Notes dcxx
References dcxxiii