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Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging E-Book

Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging E-Book

Fred A. Mettler | Milton J. Guiberteau

(2011)

Additional Information

Book Details

Abstract

Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging, by Drs. Fred A Mettler and Milton J Guiberteau, provides the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to master key nuclear imaging techniques. From physics, instrumentation, quality control, and legal requirements to hot topics such as sodium fluoride, radiopharmaceuticals, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines, this sixth edition covers the fundamentals and recent developments in the practice of nuclear medicine.

  • Get comprehensive coverage of key techniques such as PET/CT, cardiac-gated SPECT, and tumor-specific radionuclides, as well as Cerebrovascular System, Cardiovascular System, Conventional Neoplasm Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy, and Positron Emission Tomography Imaging.
  • Reference practical clinical guidance at a glance from important "Pearls and Pitfalls" in each chapter and. helpful appendices including Injection Techniques, Pediatric Dosages, Non-radioactive Pharmaceuticals, and many more
  • Assess your understanding with a section of Unknown Case Sets—expanded in this edition.
  • Find information quickly and easily with a full-color format.
  • Apply the latest best practices thanks to extensive updates of clinical guidelines that reflect recent changes in the practice of nuclear medicine, including the use of sodium fluoride (F-18 FDG for infections and Na F-18 for skeletal imaging), suggested radiopharmaceuticals for imaging various types of tumors, and imaging procedures and new classification schemes for pulmonary embolism.
  • Effectively use PET/CT in imaging neoplasms with coverage of the most current indications.
  • Manage radition safety concerns using quality control procedures for hybrid imaging equipment, patient and radiation safety checklists for I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines.
  • Get a clear view of the current state of imaging from high-quality images - 35% new to this edition.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Front Cover Cover
Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging iii
Copyright iv
Dedication v
Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Contents xi
1 - Radioactivity, Radionuclides, and Radiopharmaceuticals 1
BASIC ISOTOPE NOTATION 1
RADIONUCLIDE PRODUCTION 3
RADIOACTIVE DECAY 4
RADIONUCLIDE GENERATOR SYSTEMS 5
RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS FOR IMAGING 7
RADIOPHARMACY QUALITY CONTROL 15
UNSEALED RADIONUCLIDES USED FOR THERAPY 19
SUGGESTED READINGS 21
2 - Instrumentation and Quality Control 23
GEIGER-MUELLER COUNTER 23
IONIZATION CHAMBER 23
SODIUM IODIDE WELL COUNTER 23
SINGLE PROBE COUNTING SYSTEMS 25
DOSE CALIBRATOR 26
GAMMA SCINTILLATION CAMERA 28
SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY 38
SPECT/CT 42
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY 43
PET/CT 53
PET/MRI 54
INSTRUMENTATION QUALITY CONTROL 55
TECHNICAL ARTIFACTS 62
SUGGESTED READINGS 69
3 - Central Nervous System 71
RADIONUCLIDE BRAIN IMAGING 71
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IMAGING 90
4 - Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Salivary Glands 99
THYROID IMAGING AND UPTAKE 99
IODINE-131 THERAPY IN THYROID DISEASE 116
PARATHYROID IMAGING AND LOCALIZATION 125
SALIVARY GLAND IMAGING 128
SUGGESTED READINGS 130
5 - Cardiovascular System 131
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 131
SPECT MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING 132
PET CARDIAC IMAGING 169
RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING OF CARDIAC FUNCTION 175
SUGGESTED READINGS 193
6 - Respiratory System 195
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 195
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 197
TECHNIQUE 200
NORMAL LUNG SCAN 200
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 203
DEEP VENOUS IMAGING AND THROMBUS DETECTION 233
SUGGESTED READINGS 235
7 - Gastrointestinal Tract 237
LIVER–SPLEEN IMAGING 237
HEPATIC BLOOD POOL IMAGING 243
SPLENIC IMAGING 243
GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING STUDIES 245
MECKEL DIVERTICULUM IMAGING 248
HEPATOBILIARY IMAGING 249
GASTROESOPHAGEAL FUNCTION STUDIES 261
ABDOMINAL SHUNT EVALUATION 267
SUGGESTED READINGS 270
8 - Skeletal System 271
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 271
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 271
TECHNIQUE 273
NORMAL SCAN 273
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 275
BONE MARROW IMAGING 305
BONE MINERAL MEASUREMENTS 305
PALLIATIVE THERAPY OF PAINFUL OSSEOUS METASTASES 309
SUGGESTED READINGS 314
9 - Genitourinary System and Adrenal Glands 315
PHYSIOLOGY 315
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 315
RADIONUCLIDE RENAL EVALUATION 316
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 321
ADRENAL GLAND IMAGING 341
SUGGESTED READINGS 344
10 - Non-PET Neoplasm Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy 345
GALLIUM-67 IMAGING 345
THALLIUM-201 CHLORIDE IMAGING 347
TECHNETIUM-99M SESTAMIBI TUMOR IMAGING 349
NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTOR IMAGING 351
ADRENAL TUMOR IMAGING 353
LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHY AND INTRAOPERATIVE LOCALIZATION 353
LABELED MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES 355
TREATMENT OF LYMPHOMA WITH RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY 356
TREATMENT OF HEPATOMA AND LIVER METASTASES WITH INTRAVASCULAR MICROSPHERES 358
SUGGESTED READINGS 360
11 - 18F-FDG PET/CT Neoplasm Imaging\r 361
INDICATIONS 361
PATIENT PREPARATION FOR 18F-FDG IMAGING 361
NORMAL 18F-FDG DISTRIBUTION AND VARIANTS 364
QUALITATIVE IMAGE INTERPRETATION 374
PET IMAGE QUANTITATION 374
WHOLE-BODY 18F-FDG PET/CT NEOPLASM IMAGING 375
SUGGESTED READINGS 395
12 - Inflammation and Infection Imaging 397
RADIOLABELED LEUKOCYTES 397
GALLIUM IMAGING 406
18F-FDG PET/CT IMAGING 409
FUTURE INFLAMMATION AGENTS 417
SUGGESTED READINGS 419
13 - Authorized User and Radioisotope Safety Issues 421
OVERVIEW 421
REGULATORY AGENCIES 423
TYPES OF LICENSES 424
DOSE LIMITS 424
RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE 425
NRC TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 426
TRAINING REQUIRED FOR USE OF UNSEALED BYPRODUCT MATERIAL 427
TRAINING FOR SEALED SOURCES FOR DIAGNOSIS 429
MEDICAL EVENTS AND REQUIRED REPORTING 429
MAINTENANCE OF RECORDS 430
TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS 430
RECEIPT OF RADIOACTIVE SHIPMENTS 432
SAFE HANDLING AND ADMINISTRATION OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 433
PERMISSIBLE MOLYBDENUM CONCENTRATION 434
PET RADIATION SAFETY 434
ALARA AND DOSES TO PATIENTS 435
RELEASE OF INDIVIDUALS AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES 437
RESTRICTED AREAS, RADIATION AREAS, AND SIGNAGE POSTING 438
FACILITY RADIATION SURVEY POLICIES 438
WASTE DISPOSAL 439
SUGGESTED READINGS 442
Unknown Case Sets 443
CASE 1-1 444
CASE 1-2 445
CASE 1-3 446
CASE 1-4 446
CASE 1-5 447
CASE 1-6 447
CASE 1-7 448
CASE 1-8 448
CASE 1-9 449
CASE 1-10 449
CASE 1-11 450
CASE 2-1 450
CASE 2-2 451
CASE 2-3 452
CASE 2-4 452
CASE 2-5 453
CASE 2-6 454
CASE 2-7 455
CASE 2-8 456
CASE 2-9 456
CASE 2-10 457
CASE 2-11 457
CASE 3-1 458
CASE 3-2 459
CASE 3-3 460
CASE 3-4 461
CASE 3-5 462
CASE 3-6 462
CASE 3-7 463
CASE 3-8 463
CASE 3-9 465
CASE 3-10 466
CASE 3-11 466
CASE 4-1 467
CASE 4-2 468
CASE 4-3 469
CASE 4-4 470
CASE 4-5 471
CASE 4-6 472
CASE 4-7 473
CASE 4-8 474
CASE 4-9 474
CASE 4-10 475
CASE 4-11 475
CASE 5-1 476
CASE 5-2 477
CASE 5-3 477
CASE 5-4 478
CASE 5-5 479
CASE 5-6 479
CASE 5-7 480
CASE 5-8 482
CASE 5-9 483
CASE 5-10 484
CASE 5-11 485
CASE 6-1 485
CASE 6-2 486
CASE 6-3 486
CASE 6-4 487
CASE 6-5 488
CASE 6-6 489
CASE 6-7 490
CASE 6-8 491
CASE 6-9 492
CASE 6-10 493
CASE 6-11 494
CASE 7-1 494
CASE 7-2 495
CASE 7-3 496
CASE 7-4 497
CASE 7-5 498
CASE 7-6 499
CASE 7-7 500
CASE 7-8 500
CASE 7-9 501
CASE 7-10 502
CASE 7-11 504
Answers to Unknown Case Sets\r 505
CASE 1-1 505
CASE 1-2 505
CASE 1-3 505
CASE 1-4 505
CASE 1-5 506
CASE 1-6 506
CASE 1-7 506
CASE 1-8 506
CASE 1-9 506
CASE 1-10 506
CASE 1-11 506
CASE 2-1 507
CASE 2-2 507
CASE 2-3 507
CASE 2-4 507
CASE 2-5 507
CASE 2-6 507
CASE 2-7 507
CASE 2-8 508
CASE 2-9 508
CASE 2-10 508
CASE 2-11 508
CASE 3-1 508
CASE 3-2 509
CASE 3-3 509
CASE 3-4 509
CASE 3-5 509
CASE 3-6 509
CASE 3-7 509
CASE 3-8 510
CASE 3-9 510
CASE 3-10 510
CASE 3-11 510
CASE 4-1 510
CASE 4-2 511
CASE 4-3 511
CASE 4-4 511
CASE 4-5 511
CASE 4-6 511
CASE 4-7 511
CASE 4-8 511
CASE 4-9 511
CASE 4-10 511
CASE 4-11 512
CASE 5-1 512
CASE 5-2 512
CASE 5-3 512
CASE 5-4 512
CASE 5-5 513
CASE 5-6 513
CASE 5-7 513
CASE 5-8 513
CASE 5-9 513
CASE 5-10 514
CASE 5-11 514
CASE 6-1 514
CASE 6-2 514
CASE 6-3 514
CASE 6-4 514
CASE 6-5 514
CASE 6-6 515
CASE 6-7 515
CASE 6-8 515
CASE 6-9 515
CASE 6-10 515
CASE 6-11 516
CASE 7-1 516
CASE 7-2 516
CASE 7-3 516
CASE 7-4 517
CASE 7-5 517
CASE 7-6 517
CASE 7-7 517
CASE 7-8 517
CASE 7-9 518
CASE 7-10 518
CASE 7-11 518
APPENDIX A - \rCharacteristics of Radionuclides forImaging and Therapy 519
APPENDIX B-1 \rRadioactivity Conversion Table for International System(SI) Units (Becquerels to Curies) 521
APPENDIX B-2\r Radioactivity Conversion Table for International System(SI) Units (Curiesto Becquerels) 523
APPENDIX C-1 Technetium-99m Decay and G\reneration Tables 525
APPENDIX C-2 Other Radionuclide*\rDecay Tables\r 527
APPENDIX D - Injection Techniques and Pediatric Dosages\r 529
INJECTION TECHNIQUES 529
PEDIATRIC DOSAGES 529
APPENDIX E -1 - Sample Techniques for Nuclear Imaging\r 533
BRAIN DEATH OR CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW SCAN 533
SPECT BRAIN IMAGING 534
CISTERNOGRAM 534
THYROID SCAN (99MTC-PERTECHNETATE) 535
THYROID SCAN AND UPTAKE (IODINE-123) 535
THYROID CANCER SCAN 536
PARATHYROID SCAN 537
REST GATED EQUILIBRIUM VENTRICULOGRAPHY* 537
SPECT MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING 538
EXERCISE PROTOCOL USING A BRUCE MULTISTAGE OR MODIFIED BRUCE TREADMILL EXERCISE PROTOCOL 538
DIPYRIDAMOLE PHARMACOLOGIC STRESS PROCEDURE* 539
ADENOSINE PHARMACOLOGIC STRESS PROCEDURE 539
PULMONARY VENTILATION SCAN (XENON) 539
PULMONARY VENTILATION SCAN (DTPA AEROSOL) 540
PULMONARY PERFUSION SCAN 540
LIVER AND SPLEEN SCAN 541
SPECT LIVER AND SPLEEN IMAGING 541
HEPATOBILIARY SCAN 542
MECKEL DIVERTICULUM SCAN 543
GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING SCAN 543
ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT 544
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX 544
GASTRIC EMPTYING 545
PERITONEAL (LEVEEN) SHUNT PATENCY 545
SALIVARY GLAND IMAGING 546
BONE SCAN (99M-TECHNETIUM) 546
SPECT BONE IMAGING 547
BONE MARROW SCAN 547
RENAL BLOOD FLOW SCAN 548
RENAL SCAN (A) CORTICAL IMAGING 548
RENAL SCAN (B) GLOMERULAR FILTRATION 549
RENAL SCAN (C) TUBULAR FUNCTION 549
DIURETIC (LASIX) RENOGRAM 550
CAPTOPRIL RENOGRAM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSION 550
RADIONUCLIDE CYSTOGRAM IN CHILDREN 551
GALLIUM SCAN FOR TUMOR OR INFECTION 551
SOMATOSTATIN RECEPTOR SCAN WITH INDIUM-111 PENTETREOTIDE 552
LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHY (SENTINEL NODE LOCALIZATION) 553
BREAST IMAGING WITH BREAST-SPECIFIC GAMMA CAMERA 554
LEUKOCYTE (WHITE BLOOD CELL) SCAN 554
PET/CT TUMOR IMAGING WITH FLUORINE-18 FLUORO-2-DEOXYGLUCOSE 555
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY CARDIAC IMAGING WITH FLUORINE-18 FLUORO-2 DEOXYGLUCOSE 555
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY BRAIN IMAGING WITH FLUORINE-18 FLUORO-2-DEOXYGLUCOSE 556
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY CARDIAC REST/STRESS IMAGING WITH RUBIDIUM-82 OR NITROGEN-13 AMMONIA 556
BONE SCAN PET/CT (FLUORINE-18) 557
RED BLOOD CELL LABELING TECHNIQUES 557
APPENDIX E-2 Abnormal\rRadiopharmaceutical\rDistribution as a Result\rof Medications and\rOther Extrinsic Factors\r 559
APPENDIX F - Nonradioactive Pharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine *\r 563
Suggested Readings 564
APPENDIX G - Pregnancy And Breastfeeding 565
PREGNANCY\r 565
BREASTFEEDING 566
APPENDIX H-1 General Considerations for Hospitalized Patients Receiving Radionuclide Therapy 569
APPENDIX H-2 - Special Considerations And Requirements For Iodine-131 Therapy 573
NURSING INSTRUCTIONS 574
APPENDIX I - Emergency Procedures for Spills of Radioactive Materials\r 575
MINOR SPILLS\r* 575
MAJOR SPILLS 575
SURFACE CONTAMINATION LIMITS 576
EMERGENCY SURGERY OF PATIENTS WHO HAVE RECEIVED THERAPEUTIC AMOUNTS OF RADIONUCLIDES 576
EMERGENCY AUTOPSY OF PATIENTS WHO HAVE RECEIVED THERAPEUTIC AMOUNTS OF RADIONUCLIDES 576
Index\r 577