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Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases E-Book

Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases E-Book

John E. Bennett | Raphael Dolin | Martin J. Blaser



After thirty five years, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th Edition is still the reference of choice for comprehensive, global guidance on diagnosing and treating the most challenging infectious diseases. Drs. John E. Bennett and Raphael Dolin along with new editorial team member Dr. Martin Blaser have meticulously updated this latest edition to save you time and to ensure you have the latest clinical and scientific knowledge at your fingertips. With new chapters, expanded and updated coverage, increased worldwide perspectives, and many new contributors, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th Edition helps you identify and treat whatever infectious disease you see.

  • Get the answers to any questions you have with more in-depth coverage of epidemiology, etiology, pathology, microbiology, immunology, and treatment of infectious agents than you’ll find in any other ID resource.
  • Apply the latest knowledge with updated diagnoses and treatments for currently recognized and newly emerging infectious diseases, such as those caused by avian and swine influenza viruses.
  • Put the latest knowledge to work in your practice with new or completely revised chapters on Influenza (new pandemic strains); New Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Virus; Probiotics; Antibiotics for resistant bacteria; Antifungal drugs; New Antivirals for hepatitis B and C; Clostridium difficile treatment; Sepsis; Advances in HIV prevention and treatment; Viral gastroenteritis; Lyme Disease; Helicobacter pylori; Malaria; Infections in immunocompromised hosts; Immunization (new vaccines and new recommendations); and Microbiome.
  • Benefit from fresh perspectives and expanded global insights from an expanded team of American and International contributors. Martin Blaser, MD, a leading expert and Muriel G. and George W. Singer Professional of Translational Medicine at New York University School of Medicine, joins veteran PPID editors John E. Bennett, MD, and Raphael Dolin, MD to continue a legacy of excellence.
  • Find and grasp the information you need easily and rapidly with newly added chapter summaries.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
9780323263733v1_WEB.pdf 1
Front Cover 1
Endsheet 2 2
Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of INFECTIOUS DISEASES 5
Copyright Page 6
Contributors 7
Preface to the Eighth Edition 29
Table Of Contents 30
I Basic Principles in the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diseases 41
A Microbial Pathogenesis 41
1 A Molecular Perspective of Microbial Pathogenicity 41
Keywords 42
Diversity of Human-Microbe Relationships 41
Attributes of Microbial Pathogens 43
Clonal Nature of Bacterial Pathogens 45
Genomics and the Evolution of Pathogenicity 46
Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenicity 47
Microbial Pathogens as Intracellular Parasites 48
Subversion of Host Cellular Processes and Immune Defenses 49
Identification and Characterization of Virulence Genes 50
Molecular Microbiology at the Bedside: Pathogen Detection, Pathogen Discovery, and Genomic Profiling 50
Key References 51
References 52
2 The Human Microbiome of Local Body Sites and Their Unique Biology 54
Keywords 55
Defining the Human Microbiome 54
Human Microbiome as a Complex Ecosystem Composed of Multiple Body Site Habitats and Niches 54
Oral Microbiome 56
Associations Between Oral Microbiota and Disease States 57
Skin and Nasopharynx 57
Airway and Pulmonary Microbiome 58
Gastrointestinal Tract 59
Esophagus 59
Stomach 59
Intestine (Small and Large) 60
Vaginal Microbiome 60
Bacterial Vaginosis: An Example of a Prevalent Variation in the Vaginal Microbiome 60
Group B Streptococcus 61
Alterations in the Vaginal (and Gut) Microbiota during Pregnancy 61
Summary and Future Directions 61
References 61
3 Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics 63
Keywords 64
Issues Regarding the Complexity and Variability of Probiotics 63
Clinical Studies of Probiotics 63
Proposed Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics 65
Potential Adverse Effects of Probiotic Therapy 65
Summary and Future Directions 69
Key References 69
References 71
B Host Defense Mechanisms 72
4 Innate (General or Nonspecific) Host Defense Mechanisms 72
Keywords 73
Natural Physical Barriers to the Entry of Microorganisms Into the Body 72
Skin 72
Mucous Membranes 72
Respiratory Tract 75
Intestinal Tract 75
Genitourinary Tract 76
Eye 76
Innate Immunity and the Inflammatory Response 76
Chemokines and Chemotaxis 76
Phagocytosis and Autophagy 77
Innate Receptor Families 77
Pathogen Interference with Innate Immune Responses 78
Other Host Factors Impacting the Host-Pathogen Interaction 79
Metabolic Changes 79
Nutrition 79
Aging 79
Stress 80
Hormones 80
Key References 80
References 81
5 Adaptive Immunity: 83
Keywords 84
Short View Summary 83
Immunoglobulin Structure 83
Basic Antibody Structure 83
F(ab′)2, Fab, and Fc Pieces 83
Antigen Binding, Affinity, and Avidity 85
Immunoglobulin Classes 86
Immunoglobulin M 86
Immunoglobulin G 86
Immunoglobulin A 86
Immunoglobulin D 86
Immunoglobulin E 86
Effector Functions Mediated by Antibodies 86
Blocking or Neutralization 86
Complement Activation 87
Opsonization 87
Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity 87
Kinetics of Antibody Production and Diagnosis of Infections 88
Laboratory Measurement of Antibodies 88
Quantification of Total Immunoglobulin 88
Serum Protein Electrophoresis for Monoclonal Gammopathies 88
Measurement of Functional Antibody 88
Western Blot 89
Agglutination and Complement Fixation 89
Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry 90
Enumeration of Antibody-Producing B Cells: The ELISPOT Assay 90
Assays to Measure Antigen 90
Measurement of Immune Complexes 91
B-Cell Maturation and Immunoglobulin Production 91
DNA Rearrangement and Generation of Diverse Antigen-Binding Sites 91
Deletion of Autoreactive Clones 92
Antigen Stimulation: First Signal 92
Co-receptors Amplify or Suppress Antigen Signaling 92
Second Signals and Interactions between B Cells and T Cells 92
How B Cells Find and Activate T Cells 93
T-Cell–Independent Antigens 94
Downregulation of Antibody Production 94
B1 Cells 95
Antibody-Mediated Pathology 95
Gell and Coombs Classification of Hypersensitivity Responses 95
Type I Hypersensitivity 95
Type II Hypersensitivity 95
Origin of Autoreactive Antibodies 95
Type III Hypersensitivity 96
Hypergammaglobulinemia 96
Immunodeficiencies 96
Immunoglobulin A Deficiency 96
Agammaglobulinemias 96
Hyper-Immunoglobulin M Syndrome 97
Common Variable Immunodeficiency 97
Immunoglobulin G Subclass Deficiencies 97
Selective Immunodeficiencies 97
Combined T-Cell and B-Cell Defects 97
Malignancies 97
Therapeutic Uses of Antibodies 97
Passive Immunization 97
Intravenous Immune Globulin Replacement 97
Monoclonal Antibodies 98
Key References 98
References 100
6 Cell-Mediated Defense against Infection 102
Keywords 103
T-Cell Subsets and Phenotypic Diversity 102
CD4+ T Cells 102
Th1 Cells 102
Th2 Cells 102
Th17 Cells 104
T-Regulatory Cells 105
Helper T-Follicular Cells 105
Plasticity of Helper T-Cell Subsets 105
In Vivo CD4+ T-Cell Responses to Microbial Infection: Lessons from Mouse Models 105
CD8+ T Cells 105
T-Cell Memory 106
NKT Cells and T Cells with a Restricted TCR Response 107
T-Cell Activation 107
Antigen Presentation to T Lymphocytes 107
Major Histocompatibility Complex Structure and Peptide Binding 107
MHC Class I Structure 107
MHC Class II Structure 108
Mechanisms of Antigen Processing 108
MHC Class I Antigen-Processing Pathway 108
Viral Intervention with the MHC Class I Antigen-Processing Pathway 109
MHC Class I Cross-Priming 110
MHC Class II Antigen-Processing Pathway 110
CD1 111
CD1 Protein Structure 111
Antigens Presented by CD1 111
Cell Biology of CD1 Antigen Processing and Loading 111
Innate Immune Recognition: Setting the Stage for T-Cell Responses 112
Molecular Recognition of Microbial Products 112
Toll-like and C-Type Lectin Receptors 112
NOD-like Receptors and the Inflammasome 113
C-Type Lectins and Other Receptors Implicated in Innate Immune Recognition 113
Links between Innate Immune Recognition and Adaptive Immune Responses 113
Antigen-Presenting Cells 113
Microbial Pathogenesis and the Cellular Immune System 114
Viral Infections 114
Intracellular Bacteria 114
Phagosomal Pathogens 114
Cytoplasmic Pathogens 115
Extracellular Bacteria 115
CD1 Antigen Presentation and Host Defense against Infectious Diseases 115
Mycobacteria 115
Major Histocompatibility Complex Immunogenetics 115
Thymic Selection of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells 116
Lymphoid Anatomy 116
Lymph Nodes 116
Spleen 118
Chemokine-Mediated and Integrin-Mediated Trafficking to Lymphoid Tissues 118
Immune Tissues Associated with Mucosal Surfaces 118
Primer on Basic Immunologic Techniques: Foundation of Immunologic Models 120
Characterizing and Measuring Pathogen-Specific Immunity 120
Acknowledgment 121
Key References 122
References 123
7 Mucosal Immunity 129
Keywords 130
Specialization of Host Responses in Mucosal Tissues 129
The Challenge 129
Adaptation of Mucosal Immune Responses 129
Induction of Mucosal Immune Responses 131
Epithelial Cell Responses and Immunophysiology 131
Antigen-Presenting Cells 131
Innate Lymphoid Cells 131
Sensing Mucosal Microbiota 132
Sensing Metabolites 132
Discrimination between a “Commensal” and a “Pathogen” 133
Adaptive Immunity to Mucosal Stimulation 133
Immunologic Homeostasis in Mucosal Tissues 134
When Mucosal Responses Go Wrong 134
The Mucosal Host Response Defines Pathogenicity 135
Good Bugs, Bad Bugs, and the Hygiene Hypothesis 135
Mucosal Immunization 136
Role of Mucosal Immunity: Beyond the Mucosa 136
Role of the Microbiota in Homeostatic Networks 136
Conclusions 137
Acknowledgment 137
Key References 137
References 138
8 Granulocytic Phagocytes 141
Keywords 142
Neutrophils 141
Development 141
Morphologic and Structural Characteristics 141
Homeostasis of the Circulating Neutrophil Population 144
Inflammatory Response 144
Priming 145
Step 1: Neutrophil Recruitment 145
Selectin-Mediated Adhesion and Rolling 145
β2-Integrin-Mediated Cell-Cell Interaction 146
Role of Chemokines in Neutrophil Recruitment 147
Step 2: Phagocytosis 147
Step 3: Fate of the Ingested Microbe 148
Oxidative Burst 148
Degranulation 150
Step 4: Resolution of the Inflammatory Response 151
Microbicidal Mechanisms 152
Intraphagosomal Killing of Microbes 152
Extracellular Microbicidal Activity 154
Neutrophils and Microbial Evasion of Host Defense 154
Eosinophils 154
Key References 156
References 157
9 Complement and Deficiencies 163
Keywords 164
Complement Synthesis, Catabolism, and Distribution 163
Complement Activation 163
Overview: C3, the Linchpin of the Complement System 163
Generation of the Classical-Pathway C3 Convertase 165
Generation of the Alternative-Pathway C3 Convertase 168
The “Tickover” Model 168
The Properdin-Directed Model 168
Assembly of the Membrane Attack Complex 168
Regulation of Complement Activation 168
Regulation of C1 Activation 168
Regulation of the C3 Convertases 169
Regulation of the Membrane Attack Complex 169
Basis for Discriminating between Host and Microbial Cell Surfaces 170
Complement Receptors 170
Families of Complement Proteins 171
Complement-Mediated Functions 171
Complement and Metabolism 172
Complement and Cancer 172
Complement in Tissue Regeneration and Organogenesis 172
Microbial Interactions with the Complement System 172
Complement Deficiency States 174
Incidence 174
General Aspects of the Molecular Basis for Complement Deficiencies 175
Classical-Pathway Deficiencies 175
Clinical Aspects 175
Immune Disorders 175
Pathophysiologic Roles for Complement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. 175
Infectious Diseases 177
9780323263733v2_WEB 2360
Front Cover 2360
Endsheet 2 2361
Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2364
Copyright Page 2365
Contributors 2366
Preface to the Eighth Edition 2388
Table Of Contents 2389
III Infectious Diseases and Their Etiologic Agents 2400
A Viral Diseases 2400
134 Biology of Viruses and Viral Diseases 2400
Keywords 2401
History 2400
Virus Structure and Classification 2400
Virus–Cell Interactions 2403
Attachment 2403
Penetration and Disassembly 2405
Genome Replication 2406
Cell Killing 2407
Antiviral Drugs 2407
Virus–Host Interaction 2408
Entry 2408
Spread 2409
Tropism 2410
Persistent Infections 2410
Viruses and Cancer 2410
Viral Virulence Determinants 2411
Host Responses to Infection 2411
Key References 2412
References 2414
i DNA Viruses 2418
a Poxviridae 2418
135 Orthopoxviruses: 2418
Keywords 2419
Short View Summary 2418
Background 2418
Morphology and Chemical Structure 2418
Pathogenesis 2421
Vaccinia (Smallpox Vaccine) 2421
Immunity Resulting from Vaccination 2421
Complications Resulting from Vaccination 2421
Vaccinia Virus as a Zoonosis 2422
Variola (Smallpox) 2423
Monkeypox 2424
Pathogenesis 2424
Clinical Manifestations 2424
Diagnosis 2425
Epidemiology and Control 2425
Cowpox 2425
Clinical Manifestations 2425
Orthopoxvirus Laboratory Diagnostics 2426
Therapy: Orthopoxviruses 2426
Key References 2427
References 2428
136 Other Poxviruses That Infect Humans: 2431
Keywords 2432
Short View Summary 2431
Parapoxviruses 2431
Morphology and Composition of the Agent 2431
Pathogenesis and Immune Response 2431
Clinical Manifestations 2431
Diagnosis 2433
Epidemiology 2433
Therapy 2433
Molluscum Contagiosum 2433
Description of the Agent 2433
Pathogenesis and Pathology 2433
Clinical Manifestations 2433